The Korean War. Documentary (HD) | AntiTerror.One

A wonderful, beautiful and almost impartial documentary about the Korean War of 1950-1953. We especially recommend aviation lovers.

English Subtitles.

The Korean War - the conflict between North and South Korea (June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953), which attracted dozens of countries, including the USSR, China, Britain and the United States.

1 episode. The internal conflict between North and South Korea
2 episode. Entry into the war of the United States and other UN countries
3 episode. Counterattack "Chinese People's Volunteers"
4 episode. The Battle of the 38th Parallel

The peace treaty between North and South Korea has not been signed to this day. And already more than half a century there is a wall on the 38th parallel... One people, one story, one fate, divided by concrete, ideological intransigence and political ambitions.

Format: historical reconstruction
Genre: Docudrama
Year of production: 2012
Number of Episodes: 4
Director: Pavel Tupik
Scenario: Artem Drabkin, Vladimir Krupnik
Director of photography: Sergey Klepitsa
Composer: Boris Kukoba
Producers: Valery Babich, Vlad Ryashin

Transcription

0:00 17 APRIL, 1945. GERMANY
0:15 Seeing Flying Fortresses fighting Bulges.
0:22 Ivan Kozhedub, double Hero of the Soviet Union,
0:25 met a group of the US planes on his way back to the base from a mission.
0:29 The B-29 bombers and their Mustang escort fighters
0:34 were beating off the attacking Messerschmitts.
0:56 Can’t see who you’re firing at?
0:58 Suddenly, the American fighter fired at Kozhedub’s plane,
1:03 apparently having taken it for a German one.
1:06 In the fight that started, the Russian pilot couldn’t do other than respond.
1:10 And Kozhedub brought down two American fighters.
1:20 Damn. They’ll give me hell now. No escape.
1:48 So, soldier, who brought you down?
2:02 He says a Focke-Wulf with red nose.
2:06 Red nose? And surely blue eyes.
2:11 The Focke-Wulf must have had lots of drinking.
2:18 Well done, don’t you find it, sir?
2:27 Yeah…
2:29 My fault, Comrade General.
2:31 So, a Focker with red nose?
2:34 Comrade Colonel, sir… I was flying and interfering with nobody…
2:38 They sat on my tail. “I’m a friend” I waved to them.
2:41 Know what, Vania?
2:50 Keep these tapes and show them to no one.
3:05 Thank you, Comrade General.
3:07 This victory will go on account of the future war.
3:15 – Yes sir! Can I go, sir? – Dismiss.
3:50 THE KOREAN WAR
3:57 World War II was coming to its end.
3:59 The Red Army marched into the territory of Nazi Germany.
4:04 The Allies were heading to the German capital on the Western Front too.
4:09 In the Far East, the US and Soviet troops
4:13 were fighting against Japan, Germany’s ally.
4:17 Heads of three allied states met in Yalta, Crimea, on February 1945:
4:24 W. Churchill, British Prime Minister, F. D. Roosevelt, US President
4:29 and J. Stalin, Head of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR.
4:34 The 8 days’ negotiations in the Crimea ended in signing a joint communiqué.
4:38 In particular, the Agreement Regarding Japan and China said the following:
4:44 “The leaders of the three great powers —
4:46 the Soviet Union, the United States of America and Great Britain -
4:50 have agreed that in two or three months after Germany has surrendered
4:54 … that the Soviet Union shall enter into war against Japan
4:57 on the side of the Allies on condition that:
5:00 The southern part of Sakhalin as well as the islands
5:04 adjacent to it shall be returned to the Soviet Union…”
5:08 The following dialogue took place between Stalin and Roosevelt:
5:13 I’ve got an issue I’d like to discuss with Marshall Stalin,
5:17 and this is issue concerns Korea…
5:19 I already spoke of the establishing a trusteeship
5:21 over Korea back at the Tehran Conference.
5:23 Now we come to the question: who will be the trustee?
5:27 I think we should invite China, the Soviet Union
5:29 and the United States to be the trustees.
5:32 Isn’t it going to become a protectorate?
5:34 No way. The trustees will help the Korean people
5:38 to govern their own country until they are ready for self-government.
5:42 – Will we have to send troops to Korea? – No.
5:46 I have no objections to the proposition made by Mr. President.
5:51 The shorter the term of the trusteeship is, the better it would be.
5:55 But at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, Harry S. Truman,
5:59 new US President took up a more rigid position towards the USSR.
6:06 Soviet Union’s desire to fence itself from the capitalist world
6:10 with a buffer zone of the states having communist regimes alerted the West.
6:15 Both the US and Britain saw the expansion of communism as the No.1 danger.
6:23 To strengthen his position at the negotiations, Truman rendered to Stalin
6:28 the information he had just received from the military —
6:31 the US “had a weapon of extraordinary destructive power.”
6:38 I might seem that the Allies had an up-to-date weapon
6:42 to fight the remaining enemies in World War II,
6:45 but Stalin realized that it was the USSR that was the target of the new bomb.
6:55 ISLE OF TINIAN. PACIFIC OCEAN. US AIR FORCE BASE
7:02 The war against Japan was still raging.
7:05 Patrol aircraft were taking off the US Air Force base runway.
7:11 There was nothing unusual in the arrival of a new group of bombers.
7:15 The unusual thing was hat the area they arrived
7:20 at was carefully guarded and located several miles away from other units.
7:32 On 6 August, 1945, the B-29 bomber Enola Gay
7:36 commanded by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets left the Titian US AF base.
7:44 There were a reserve plane, two observation
7:46 and three weather reconnaissance planes in his squadron too.
7:49 The planes reached the Japanese city of Hiroshima in 6 hours.
7:56 Flying over the center of the city, Enola Gay releases its load at 08:15.
8:03 In 45 seconds the nuclear bomb “Little Boy” detonated at the height of 600 m.
8:08 The blast was equivalent to 16 kilotons of TNT.
8:34 The exact number of the victims of the nuclear bombing is still unknown.
8:39 Over 80,000 people died immediately after the explosion in Hiroshima.
8:44 About 166,000 people died of burns,
8:49 wounds and radiation sickness by the end of the year.
8:55 Three days after Major Charles W. Sweeney dropped
8:58 a plutonium bomb the “Fat Man” on Nagasaki.
9:02 It killed about 70,000 people at once.
9:06 The world made a step into the age of nuclear weapons…
9:13 The humanity was on the brink of the new confrontation —
9:17 the competition of the new technologies.
9:20 Lagging behind in this competition would mean inevitable collapse
9:24 and any mistake — a catastrophe.
9:28 However, the USSR did execute the agreements
9:32 reached by the Allies in Yalta and Potsdam.
9:35 In August 1945, the Red Army defeated the Kwantong army group
9:42 of the Imperial Japanese Army in a 10 days’ blitzkrieg in Manchuria.
9:47 The Americans came forth with a new proposition: the United States
9:51 would not interfere in the actions of the Soviet Union in Manchuria.
9:55 The USSR would receive the Kuril Islands
9:58 but should not land (as was planned before) on Hokkaido Island;
10:02 all islands of Japan would remain the area of the US influence.
10:07 Having surrendered, Japan lost its rule in Korea too.
10:12 According to the agreement between the Allies in World War II,
10:15 the country would be divided into 2 parts by a demarcation line
10:19 along the 38th parallel. Stalin approved this project.
10:24 North Korea would be a Soviet responsibility area,
10:28 while South Korea a US one.
10:31 The 38th parallel is still the border line between North and South Koreas.
10:36 A little bit over 10 million of population lived in the northern part
10:40 of the country and about 20 million in the southern.
10:46 The government of the Republic of Korea was formed in the South in May 1948.
10:53 In the North, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
10:57 was established in September.
11:04 After the end of the war on 18 August 1945, pilot Ivan Kozhedub was awarded
11:11 with the third Gold Star for his high military skill and personal courage.
11:19 Ivan N. Kozhedub. Triple Hero of the Soviet Union.
11:23 He got to the front in the spring of 1943 only.
11:25 He began his career flying the fighter Lavochkin La-5.
11:29 He made 330 sorties during WW II and was never brought down.
11:32 He destroyed 62 German planes and became the best pilot in the Allied Forces.
11:41 The pilots of the 176th Proskurov Guards Fighter Air Regiment
11:48 that Kozhedub was serving with made 9,450 sorties during the war.
11:52 “Air Hunters” had 750 fights, with 389 German planes brought down.
12:01 But festive enthusiasm passed and the question:
12:04 “What next?” was heard more and more often.
12:07 It was obvious that the Armed Forces were going to be scaled down.
12:10 Many people wanted to quit the military and join a college.
12:14 But a considerable part of them couldn’t imagine themselves beyond the aviation.
12:21 The pilots understood: the experience they gained
12:24 in the fights with the Luftvaffe might be of use again.
12:29 Despite the signature of the peace treaties, the end of World War II
12:33 didn’t bring stability in the relations between the former Allies.
12:40 Pro-Soviet regimes were quickly growing in the occupation zone controlled by the USSR.
12:46 Communists assumed power in Poland back in July 1944.
12:52 In 1945 - Yugoslavia and Albania. Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary
12:57 and North Korea joined them by 1949.
13:05 The People’s Republic of China was declared in Beijing on 1 October 1949.
13:13 And the German Democratic Republic was declared
13:16 in the Soviet occupation zone on 7 October.
13:19 The West strongly disliked the expansion of communist ideas.
13:27 At the same time, the US that already had nuclear weapons had military superiority.
13:35 Tension grew between the former Allies.
13:39 On 5 March, 1946, W. Churchill delivered his famous speech in Fulton.
13:47 Churchill decided to create an Anglo-Saxon military alliance
13:51 in Europe to counterbalance the Soviet iron curtain.
13:58 5 March 1946 became the day of the beginning
14:02 of the “cold war” that lasted for 50 years.
14:09 The Soviet Union was involved in the arms race.
14:13 The need arose to create within a shortest time its own A-bomb
14:17 and the means of its delivery to any part of the world.
14:21 Forming an efficient air defense capable of timely eliminating
14:26 any threat to the national security was the second task.
14:33 Two regiments were armed with the US machinery.
14:37 But these aircraft were unable to carry nuclear bombs.
14:41 Thus the Boeing B-29 remained the only carrier capable
14:44 of bearing the nuclear weapons.
14:48 Boeing B-29 Superfortress. The US strategic bomber.
14:53 Its load capacity was 9 metric tons, a record load capacity of the time.
14:59 Its maximum flight speed was 586 kmph, maximum flight range – 6760 km.
15:08 It was B-29s that dropped the A-bombs on Japan cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
15:15 Two days after the end of the World War II, V. Myasishchev, Chief Aircraft Designer
15:19 of the plant located in Kazan, proposed to copy the B-29.
15:25 Stalin liked the proposition.
15:27 The Soviet Union attempted to get a B-29 officially under Lend Lease,
15:32 but the US always declined their supply in a polite manner.
15:37 – Did you really find it? – Yeah, it looks impressive.
15:40 Here it is. Intact! We have even fuelled it up, but haven’t tried to fly yet.
15:44 Will it take off, I wonder?
15:46 It surely will. We’re waiting for a proper timing.
15:49 Yet, the aircraft of this type were found at the airfields in the Russian Far East.
15:55 Several planes damaged by the Japanese had to take emergency landing.
16:00 Comrade Tupolev, do you know the B-29 well?
16:06 I do, Comrade Stalin. It’s a very good airplane.
16:09 All right, Andrey Nikolayevich. We need a plane having the same capability.
16:13 And we want to entrust YOU with this task. Do you agree?
16:18 Yes, I do. It’s in a good state.
16:19 The Soviet industry that was working to serve needs
16:23 of the war for 4 years was in a poor condition.
16:26 Professional people, raw materials, electric power, tools
16:30 and equipment were in desperately short supply.
16:34 And under these circumstances the country should make a breakthrough. At any cost.
16:43 Pilot Dmitry Vaulin: “Airtightness of cockpits was checked by women.
16:48 Excess air pressure was created inside the cockpit and the women passed
16:52 their chicks along the seams outside to check whether there was any air leak.
16:56 The elevation rudders and ailerons were controlled via steel ropes.
16:59 Eyelets were inserted at the ends of the ropes in the USSR
17:02 and the ends themselves were plaited.
17:03 And in the US both rope ends were inserted into a pipe that was pressed out after.
17:08 During tear tests, the US ropes would break, but their ends never left the pipe.
17:13 How could this possibly be made?
17:15 It turned out, that additional hammering was needed in order
17:18 for the pipe metal to fill the cavities between the plaited rope threads.
17:24 There were thousands of technical details like this.
17:28 Nevertheless, a new Soviet plane called
17:31 Tupolev Tu-4 took the air two years later, in 1947.
17:36 It still could not reach the US territory and come back
17:40 at a single fuel charge, but it was already able to reach London.
17:45 The only thing remained was to develop an A-bomb…
17:50 President Truman asked J. R. Oppenheimer, “father of the atomic bomb”, during a talk:
17:58 – When can the Russians create the bomb? – I don’t know.
18:03 – I know. – When?
18:06 Never!
18:14 3 SEPTEMBER, 1949. THE KAMCHATKA PENINSULA.
18:17 A plane of the US AF Special Air Weather Reconnaissance Service
18:21 took the air samples near the Kamchatka.
18:25 Radioactive fission products were detected in them.
18:29 That meant that an atomic explosion was done in the USSR.
18:34 Indeed, the first Soviet atomic bomb was tested
18:38 at the testing area in the Semipalatinsk Oblast, Kazakhstan, on 29 August, 1949.
18:46 When he received a confirmation to this information,
18:48 US President Truman announced to the journalists.
18:55 We have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the USSR.
19:02 Ever since atomic energy was first released by man,
19:05 the eventual development of this new force by other nations was to be expected.
19:16 By that time a communist civil administration was already
19:20 operating in North Korea, managing the country’s economy and political life.
19:28 Soviet-born Koreans and Korean communists
19:30 who lived in exile were coming back to the country.
19:36 Kim Il-Sung, captain of the Soviet Army,
19:39 arrived in Korea by the steamer “Pugachov” from Vladivistok.
19:43 He was appointed Deputy Commandant of Pyongyang.
19:50 Kim Il-Sung. His real name was Kim Sŏng-Ju.
19:54 Participated in the partisan movement in Manchuria.
19:57 Together with the remnants of a partisan detachment
20:00 forced his way to the USSR in 1940.
20:03 Served with the Red Army. Supported by the Soviet Union,
20:06 became Head of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea.
20:13 General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea
20:16 and President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the hour of his death.
20:20 During his lifetime he was bearing titles:
20:23 “Great Leader, Sun of the Nation, Marshall of the Mighty Republic”.
20:28 His son Kim Jong-Il became the second Korean President.
20:33 The first thing done by the Americans who occupied South Korea
20:36 was disbanding the government created by left-wing nationalists.
20:40 General Douglas McArthur proposed US citizen Syngman Rhee
20:45 as candidate for leadership in the country.
20:49 Syngman Rhee. He was arrested for actions against the government.
20:56 He immigrated to the US in 1904.
20:59 Demanded that Korea be placed under trusteeship of the USA.
21:02 Deprecated cooperation of the USA and Soviet Union during World War II.
21:07 He was declared President of the Republic of Korea in advance.
21:11 When in the USA, he was raising funds for occupied Korea
21:14 but was accused of embezzlement.
21:16 In 1948 he was elected President of the Republic of Korea. Rabid anticommunist.
21:23 Another electoral victory he faked in April 1960 caused mass riots.
21:28 Immigrated to the Hawaii where he lived the rest of his life.
21:34 Syngman Rhee was first to verbalized the idea of the creation of a separate state
21:39 in the territory of Korea, even before his US bosses.
21:43 Washington also viewed the entire Korea as sphere of its influence,
21:46 with no participation of the USSR allowed.
21:50 However, the opposition in the part occupied by the US was growing.
21:53 The partisan movement expanding.
21:58 Kim Jung-Sou, resident of a village near Mount Taebaeksan:
22:03 “We lived in the democratic and anticommunist Republic Korea
22:07 in the daytime and in a communist state at night,
22:10 since the rule of the partisans was as strong at night
22:13 as the rule of the police in the daytime.
22:15 A “general” election, first one in the history of Korea,
22:19 took place in the South under supervision of a UN commission on 10 May.
22:24 The outcome of the election was more than arguable: 589 people were killed
22:28 and 10,000 arrested during 6 weeks.
22:33 Still, Yi Seungman was declared President.
22:39 New power-holding structures were being formed in the North too.
22:42 The People’s Army was formed by February.
22:45 The Constitution of the country was adopted on 8 September, 1948.
22:48 Seoul, a city located in the territory of South Korea,
22:51 was declared the state’s capital.
22:55 The 38th parallel was acknowledged as the border
22:59 between the two states neither by Syngman Rhee nor by Kim Il-Sung.
23:02 So, conflicts at the border became more frequent
23:05 and the things were obviously moving to war.
23:09 The development of the A-bomb in the USSR and the aircraft able to deliver it
23:13 to the target consolidated the position of the Soviet state.
23:17 Simultaneously, the air defense system of the USSR was being built.
23:22 Best fighter units were assigned to defend the sky over the country.
23:28 The 176th Fighter Air Regiment Ivan Kozhedub was serving with
23:32 was redeployed to the Tyoply Stan airfield near Moscow back in August 1945.
23:38 The regiment joined the 324th Fighter Air Division
23:42 of the Soviet Air Force of the Moscow Military District next May.
23:48 And its pilots became participants
23:51 to all military parades held in the Soviet capital.
23:56 Ivan Kozhedub joined the Air Force Academy right after the World War II ended.
24:02:00 The hero was much sought after.
24:03:00 He was invited to meetings, anniversary celebrations, numerous partied.
24:08:00 Being a kindest person, he was unable to refuse.
24:15:00 Nevertheless, Kozhedub, supported by his wife Veronika Nikolayevna,
24:20:00 passed this test with credit and graduated form the academy with honors.
24:27:00 In 1947 new Lavochkin La-9 fighters arrived at the 176th Regiment.
24:34:00 Though, time new type fighter plane was being developed at the same.
24:40:00 They were jetfighters.
24:53:00 The first production combat jetfighter, the Messerschmitt 262,
24:59:00 was built in Germany.
25:01:00 This was why the USSR, the US and Britain was hunting experts in nuclear weapons,
25:08:00 missile technologies and aircraft construction throughout
25:12:00 the entire Germany even before World War II ended.
25:27:00 On 22 October night, 1946, over 2,000 German experts
25:33:00 in aircraft construction departed to the west.
25:40:00 The Germans were anxious about their future and expected the worst.
25:52:00 But the designers who arrived at Podberezie were astonished at the thoroughness
25:56:00 the conditions of their offices and workshops were reproduced with:
26:01:00 even the ashtrays and calendars delivered from Germany were put on their places.
26:19:00 The decision to produce German-designed gas-turbine engines
26:22:00 was adopted at a meeting held at the Kremlin back in December 1945.
26:29:00 The BMW and Junkers engines were produced
26:33:00 at the Soviet plants under the codes RD-20 and RD-10.
26:56:00 A snow storm broke out near Moscow in late March 1946.
27:01:00 All roads were blocked with snow in the urban-type settlement of Zhukovsky.
27:04:00 The trucks going to the Flight Research Institute
27:06:00 were literally creeping along the highway.
27:11:00 They were carrying parts of a new type fighter plane
27:13:00 developed at the Mikoyan & Gurevich Design Bureau.
27:20:00 The new aircraft was thoroughly assembled.
27:23:00 Guys, get the steps!
27:27:00 Along with the institute experts, it was explored by test-pilot Aleksey Grinchik.
27:40:00 The first test plane was ready on the airfield’s runway in a month.
27:57:00 Tower, it’s Hawk. Requesting permission to take off.
28:00:00 You have a go, Hawk.
28:04:00 11:12. Engines roaring,
28:09:00 and Aleksey Grinchik took the first Soviet jetfighter I-300
28:14:00 (the Mikoyan MiG-29 in the future) powered by two BMW engines to the air.
28:25:00 The same day two hours later test-pilot Ivanov took off flying the Yakovlev Yak-15
28:30:00 developed at the Yakovlev Design Bureau and powered by a Junkers engine.
28:36:00 The Soviet fighter aviation entered the age of jet aircraft
28:40:00 only a year after the end of World War II.
28:52:00 JULY 1946.
29:02:00 – Wow! Amazing! – Indeed.
29:06:00 The jet-planes were being demonstrated to the heads of the aircraft industry
29:11:00 at an airfield in July.
29:16:00 The Yak-15 flown by pilot Ivanov was in the sky.
29:22:00 The maneuvers are selected well.
29:28:00 I can do that on the Mikoyan plane too. Even better.
29:36:00 Don’t say so! You cannot take such risk!
29:39:00 It hasn’t been tested in such modes yet!
29:45:00 It was now Grinchik’s turn.
30:01:00 – Saw that? – Great! Well done!
30:07:00 The flight was coming to its end when the pilot made an overbank…
30:18:00 What is he doing?
30:20:00 And another one…
30:26:00 Test-pilot Aleksandr Grinchik died.
30:30:00 The works on the aircraft and its testing continued.
30:35:00 Already in August a jet-plane flashed at the height of 400 m. over the stands
30:41:00 of the Tushino airfield at the festival dedicated to Air Force Day.
30:46:00 It was for the first time that test-pilot Shiyanov
30:50:00 demonstrated the MiG-9 to the public.
30:54:00 In 1946 the serial production of the plane was launched,
30:58:00 but the pilots in units didn’t like it because of frequent failures
31:02:00 and lack of the parachute eject mechanism.
31:06:00 In the US, the development of jet-machinery went with great difficulty.
31:11:00 Passed into service in 1947, the F-84 Thunderjet
31:16:00 was not acknowledged as completed.
31:20:00 There were problems with its design and engines.
31:23:00 The plane tests were nothing but a formality, which caused many crashes.
31:29:00 So, the aircraft earned the nickname
31:32:00 Mechanic's Nightmare with technical personnel.
31:36:00 Soviet engineers were unpacking the boxes with the emblem
31:39:00 of the British company Rolls-Royce on them with great care.
31:42:00 The Soviet government purchased the turbojet engines Dervent V, Nene I
31:49:00 and Nene II, most perfect ones of the time, as well as the license of their production.
31:54:00 Six engines were disassembled to the last screw.
31:57:00 All charts and materials the engines were built of were thoroughly examined.
32:03:00 And the serial production of the new British engines
32:05:00 was launched in the USSR in four months already.
32:09:00 Dervent was produced as RD-500,
32:12:00 and powerful Nene I and Nene II became RD-45 and RD-45F.
32:19:00 ARTIOM IVANOVICH MIKOYAN
32:20:00 By the end of the year, one of the engines was placed into a plane
32:23:00 provisionally titled I-310 designed at the Mikoyan bureau.
32:28:00 It was only one day before New Year 1948.
32:33:00 The airfield maintenance machinery cleaned up the runway from snow
32:37:00 and test-pilot Yuganov drove upa new generation fighter to the start position.
32:43:00 The plane showed excellent performance
32:46:00 and the serial production of the MiG-15 was launched.
32:51:00 Sergey Kramarenko, Double Hero of the Soviet Union:
32:57:00 “The first flight in the MiG-15 impressed me greatly:
33:02:00 after I slightly pushed the throttle handle forward, the plane virtually darted off
33:06:00 and shot up after passing several dozens meters.
33:10:00 Lt. Col. Kozhedub started mastering the MiG-15 in the summer 1950.
33:16:00 The triple Hero of the Soviet Union became Deputy Commander
33:19:00 of the 324th Fighter Air Division.
33:23:00 And in November 1950 Ivan Kozhedub was conferred
33:27:00 a title of 1st Class Air Force Pilot.
33:30:00 The MiG-15 became the most widely produced jet aircraft
33:33:00 in the history of world’s aviation.
33:35:00 It was in service in 40 countries, with NATO reporting name “Fagot”.
33:42:00 15,560 MiG-15’s have been built in total.
33:46:00 The last MiG-15 was decommissioned in Albania Air Force in 2005.
33:50:00 MIG-15 CHECKOUT FLIGHT. 4 NOVEMBER 1948
33:52:00 Surprisingly, the plane developed in the forties of the 20th century
33:55:00 had been in service for over 60 years.
33:59:00 Korean leader Kim Il-Sung visited Moscow.
34:01:00 MARCH 1949. MOSCOW
34:03:00 He was discussing the issues of economic cooperation
34:05:00 and opening a credit at a meeting with Stalin.
34:08:00 But the chief issue was uniting the Korean peninsula states by force.
34:14:00 Stalin was cautious:
34:16:00 “I wouldn’t say that the North has an absolute superiority over the South,
34:20:00 therefore the assault on the South is impossible…”
34:24:00 Later, the leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union found the planned
34:28:00 offensive inexpedient, fraught with a long war and foreign intervention.
34:37:00 The directive addressed to Terenty Shtykov, Soviet Ambassador in Korea,
34:41:00 estimated the offensive unprepared neither in military nor in political aspect,
34:46:00 and said that a “private operation”
34:48:00 would be surely deemed as the beginning of the war.
34:52:00 However, the events of the subsequent weeks in the Far East
34:56:00 changed the alignment of forces. The civil war in China ended.
35:01:00 The People’s Republic of China was declared in Beijing on 1 October.
35:06:00 The Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong came to power.
35:12:00 Chiang Kai-shek’s government
35:13:00 under the cover of the US troops fled to Taiwan island.
35:19:00 Mao Zedong, Chinese communist leader visited Moscow.
35:24:00 Now the USSR had an ally in the Far East.
35:28:00 The only thing was that this ally didn’t have sufficient military power yet.
35:38:00 On 13 March, a Kuomintang Air Force plane invaded the airspace
35:43:00 of the People’s Republic of China at the height 10,000 m.
35:51:00 Knowing that the PRC actually had no aviation,
35:55:00 they flew over the Chinese territory absolutely unpunished.
36:01:00 Even when shells hit the plane’s fuselage,
36:04:00 the pilots decided that they got in the area of intense turbulence.
36:10:00 The La-11 flown by Sr. Lt. Vasily Sidorov flashed over the border violator.
36:15:00 Sidorov’s supporting aircraft aligned for an attack…
36:18:00 The air scout didn’t have time to send another radiogram. It crashed down.
36:34:00 The Republic of China didn’t have its own Air Force.
36:38:00 The Chinese government addressed the Soviet Union for help in building the air force.
36:44:00 Thus, the 106th Fighter Air Division arrived in China in the March.
36:51:00 Fighter pilot Stanislav Khvalensky:
36:55:00 “Approximately half of our regiment was selected
37:00:00 for a so called “governmental assignment” late 1949.
37:04:00 Each of us was summoned individually.
37:07:00 We had a talk and were explained that the mission involves danger.
37:10:00 Only volunteers were approved.
37:12:00 Those in doubt or who didn’t wish to be part of it were left at the garrison.
37:15:00 As soon as we got to Shanghai our uniforms were changed for that of the Chinese army;
37:19:00 we were given the Chinese documents with Chinese names.
37:23:00 The 106th Division was the only Soviet Air Force unit in China before the Korean War.
37:30:00 Anti-aircraft gunners served in the neighborhood of the fighter pilots.
37:35:00 Piotr Lutkov, the 1st Guards Air Defense and Searchlight Regiment:
37:40:00 “We were given the Chinese uniform in Shanghai;
37:42:00 a Chinese apprentice-instructor-guard was attached to every single one of our men
37:47:00 and we were forbidden to leave the regiment’s base.
37:51:00 They explained these measures to us by Kuomintang hunting
37:55:00 for the Soviet soldiers in order to capture and show them to the capitalist world
38:00:00 as evidence of the Russian interference in the Chinese civil war.
38:05:00 The Kuomintang newspapers would publish caricatures depicting a Soviet soldier
38:10:00 wearing a civil coat with the submachine gun’s trunk sticking out.
38:15:00 The Kuomintang Air Force lost over 7 aircraft over Shanghai during 6 months.
38:24:00 Kim Il-Sung continued his search of allies to fight against South Korea.
38:29:00 He received Mao Zedong’s assurance:
38:34:00 in case the US gets involved in the war, China will help the DPRK.
38:41:00 Given this, the USSR also decided to support Kim Il-Sung.
38:45:00 Perhaps, Stalin’s decision was influenced by the following fact:
38:49:00 Dean G. Acheson, US Secretary of State declared in January
38:53:00 that South Korea is beyond the defensive perimeter of the USA.
38:58:00 From this, one might draw a conclusion that the US would not provide
39:03:00 a direct military aid to Syngman Rhee in case of the attack from the North.
39:09:00 The preparations of the offensive started
39:12:00 against the hullaballoo about the reunification of the country.
39:15:00 The USSR supplied North Korea with quite a large amount of armaments,
39:20:00 including tanks and aircraft.
39:24:00 Soviet military officers arrived in the country as advisers.
39:29:00 Lt. Gen. N.A. Vasilyev was appointed Principal Military Adviser
39:32:00 to the Korean People’s Army.
39:36:00 Nikolay A. Vasilyev. Hero of the Soviet Union.
39:40:00 During World War II commanded divisions of the Stalingrad,
39:44:00 Don and Voronezh Fronts and rifle corps later.
39:48:00 Appointed Principal Military Adviser and Military Attaché in Korea since 1949.
39:54:00 Recalled to the USSR in November 1950.
39:58:00 Worked in the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces
40:02:00 of the USSR and as the Military Attaché in China.
40:06:00 The Korean People’s Army considerably outpowered its enemy by the summer 1950.
40:15:00 The Korean People’s Army numbered 188,000 of manpower,
40:20:00 while the army of South 114,000.
40:22:00 The North had 7 times more machineguns, 13 times more submachine guns,
40:28:00 6 times more aircraft and tanks than the South.
40:31:00 Both sides kept most of their troops deployed near the 38th parallel;
40:35:00 therefore, conflicts were happening constantly.
40:39:00 1,836 armed intrusions into the North Korean territory
40:45:00 took place during 1949.
40:48:00 It was obvious that this high tension would sooner or later
40:52:00 end up in an armed conflict.
40:57:00 A Defense Minister’s order saying that the South Korean army provoked an attack
41:04:00 by violating the 38th parallel was read out in the units of the DPRK’s army.
41:12:00 The government of the DPRK issued an order to launch a counteroffensive.
41:36:00 The Sunday morning of 25 June 1950.
41:41:00 The pilots of the 176th Fighter Air Regiment had their day off.
41:46:00 Life at the base followed its customary routine:
41:49:00 morning exercises, breakfast, flying, rest, studies.
41:56:00 Peaceful life was returning to normal. The pilots even clubbed to buy cars.
42:09:00 Gromov, Lazutin, Kramarenko and Rodionov cast lots to decide
42:13:00 who should come first. Lazutin was.
42:16:00 And soon Kramarenko became the owner of the car too.
42:29:00 But at lunchtime radio loudspeakers sounded
42:34:00 just like in 1941…
42:39:00 “Attention! Attention! This is the Soviet Information Bureau.
42:46:00 A war has begun in far Korea…”
42:56:00 It was obvious that the USSR would not leave the Kim Il-Sung’s regime
43:00:00 without support.
43:02:00 The US, in their turn, would aid South Korean leader Syngman Rhee.
43:08:00 And allies of recent would pass to fighting each other.
43:15:00 The world’s two greatest powers armed with nuclear weapons
43:20:00 would confront on a small peninsula.
43:39:00 Wayland Mayo, pilot of a B-29:
43:43:00 “The idea that Russia would enter into the war on the US
43:47:00 was considered a very real threat.
43:49:00 Our pilots were duly trained and able of flying over Russia with A-bombs.
43:55:00 Every pilot was attached to a city or region and provided with the description
43:59:00 of potential counteraction of antiaircraft artillery and fighters.
44:04:00 We knew the whereabouts and how to get there in case of war.
44:07:00 There was the only problem: everyone understood that it was a one way ticket.
44:12:00 But nobody complained. I had no doubts.
44:15:00 If I had been ordered, I would have dropped the bomb even on New York.”
44:20:00 The Korean People’s Army was advancing in several directions simultaneously.
44:25:00 Supported by tanks, the main force was heading towards Seoul.
44:30:00 The auxiliary force was bypassing the capital from the east,
44:33:00 intercepting the enemy’s retreat.
44:36:00 In addition, the communists landed sea-borne troops
44:39:00 near the city of Gangneung.
44:41:00 Supported by self-propelled guns SU-76,
44:45:00 the units of the North Korean border guards took the only artillery unit
44:49:00 in the Republic of Korea on the very first day of the actions.
44:58:00 Late at nigh Syngman Rhee called Gen. McArthur,
45:01:00 Commander of the US occupation force in Japan.
45:05:00 The general is sleeping. I’m not going to wake him up!
45:08:00 US citizens in South Korea will be dying one by one.
45:13:00 Sweet dreams to the general!
45:16:00 Douglas McArthur. General of the US Army,
45:19:00 Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. Rabid anticommunist.
45:22:00 He accepted the Japanese surrender aboard the battleship USS Missouri.
45:26:00 Commander of the UN forces in the Korean War since 1950.
45:32:00 He demanded that nuclear weapons be used against Korea and China.
45:35:00 He criticized publicly the decisions of President Truman.
45:40:00 He was removed from command by Truman in April 1951.
45:49:00 The units of the Korean People’s Army
45:52:00 penetrated to the Han River that was 6 km wide in some of its reaches.
46:01:00 Seoul was situated on this river.
46:05:00 Southern Korean army and civil population were leaving the city over the only bridge.
46:10:00 The sappers had prepared the bridge to destruction in order to prevent
46:15:00 the Kim Il-Sung’s troops from taking the city’s rear
46:17:00 and block their further inland advance.
46:29:00 It appeared to the commander of the sappers
46:32:00 that he saw T-34 tanks on the other river bank.
46:37:00 Blow up the bridge!
46:41:00 How? It’s full of people!
46:45:00 Tanks near bridge! They’ll squash them all in 5 minutes!
46:50:00 There are people out there!
46:53:00 Many soldiers and civilians died as a result of the bridge explosion.
46:58:00 Half of the Korean Republican army’s manpower
47:01:00 was abandoned on the north bank of the river.
47:07:00 But the tanks entered the city next day in the morning only.
47:09:00 And the North Korean infantry cut off the main highway
47:13:00 leading south after a bypass maneuver.
47:19:00 The commander of the 105th Tank Brigade reported the taking of the city.
47:26:00 The same day the US AF aircraft appeared in the Korean sky.
47:30:00 They were a wing of the Twin Mustang fighters that came
47:33:00 from an air base in Japan.
47:34:00 They sent down 3 planes in the fight with the North Korean Yak-9’s and lost only one.
47:40:00 A while later, F-90 Shooting Star fighters repulsed the North Korean Il-10’s
47:46:00 attacking the Gimpo airfield and brought down 5 planes.
47:50:00 After the taking of Seoul Kim Il-Sung’s army stopped.
47:54:00 The actions renewed only on the 5 July.
47:58:00 Pyongyang expected a general uprising in the South counted
48:02:00 on while planning the campaign against the South.
48:06:00 Though, the partisans helped in some ways, no revolution occurred.
48:12:00 The Koreans were simply running from war.
48:15:00 Stalin wired to Ambassador Shtykov:
48:20:00 Telegram. Stalin to Soviet Ambassador in Korea Shtykov:
48:24:00 “You do not report on the plans of the Korean command.
48:29:00 Is it going to advance further? Or decided to stop?
48:34:00 We think they should continue the offensive. Absolutely.
48:38:00 The sooner South Korea is liberated the less opportunities
48:41:00 for the intervention it would be.”
48:45:00 Those very days, trains were heading to Irkutsk from Moscow
48:49:00 just like during the wartime.
48:54:00 Thank you for the tea.
48:57:00 There were Soviet Air Force officers in the passenger compartments
49:02:00 and the MiG-15 planes with detached wings in the sealed freight cars.
49:15:00 Guys, the tea.
49:17:00 The 5th Guards Fighter Air Division reinforced
49:20:00 with a Guards Air Regiment crossed the Chinese border by trains.
49:27:00 The uniform of all military personnel — soldiers and officers —
49:31:00 was changed for the Chinese one.
49:59:00 The train arrived in Mukden and the unloading started.
50:02:00 The mechanics were assembling the aircraft at the airfields.
50:06:00 Here we are!
50:11:00 Get the suitcases.
50:15:00 – Here! – Thanks.
50:18:00 It’s so great here!
50:22:00 All personnel must give up all the IDs you have.
50:29:00 Other IDs, in Chinese, were given instead.
50:32:00 They said that their bearers were Chinese volunteers.
50:40:00 Thus the 5th Division became the 151st Guards Fighter Air Division.
50:54:00 Its regiments were spread among the air bases of the Northeast China —
50:59:00 in Mukden, Anshan and Liaoyang.
51:08:00 Two world’s superpowers that had been allies recently,
51:14:00 come to armed confrontation.
51:17:00 The civil war in Korea was growing into a local conflict
51:22:00 with dozens countries involved.
51:26:00 And the Soviet and the US pilots were forced to become enemies.
51:32:00 The threat of a nuclear disaster loomed over East Asia.
51:40:00 We’ll get warmed soon.
51:43:00 Written by: Artiom Drabkin, Vladimir Krupnik
51:47:00 Directed by: Pavel Tupik Director of photography: Sergey Klepitsa
51:51:00 Music by: Boris Kukoba, Narrators: Anatoly Bogushm Yevgeny Sinchukov
51:56:00 Script editor: Liudmila Avdeyeva Production manager: Ilona Serdobodskaya
52:01:00 Producers: Valery Babich, Vlad Ryashin, Sergey Titinkov, Konstantin Ernst
52:22:00 Produced by: Star Media, Babich-Design on commission by Channel One Russia OJSC. © Star Media Pro LLC
0:04 1950. China. Airfield near Shanghai.
0:16 Comrade Colonel, sir. All is ready for the flights.
0:22 Oleg! Got matches?
0:25 The US long range single-seat fighter North American Aviation P-51D Mustang.
0:41 Guys, got matches?
0:45 Have something to light up the cigarette?
0:51 Comrade Colonel, they say they do not smoke.
1:00 Guided by Soviet military pilots, the Chinese pilots
1:04 were doing exercises in the air over the airfield.
1:10 A bit lower.
1:15 Low.
1:21 No! What the hell are you doing?! Step on the gas! Translate!
1:31 The casualties among the Chinese plots required amendments
1:35 in the flight training program.
1:38 The forces of the Democratic People's Republic
1:41 of Korea fought against the South Korea
1:43 and its American allies on the other shore of the Yellow Sea.
1:49 Supporting the “fraternal communist countries”,
1:54 the Soviet government believed that the USSR
1:56 would be able to avoid direct involvement into the war.
1:58 Yet, some things still could be foreseen.
2:28 THE KOREAN WAR
2:43 The unleashed Korean War shocked the entire world.
2:47 Initiated by the USA, the first special meeting of the UN Security Council
2:51 dedicated to the situation in Korea took place on 25 June, 1950.
2:59 The UN Security Council consisted of 5 permanent members: the USSR, USA,
3:05 UK, France and a representative of Kuomintang China,
3:10 as well as 10 non-permanent ones.
3:13 Each of the permanent members could veto any decision of the Security Council.
3:21 At the same time in the Far East,
3:23 the American troops were embarking the weapons and ammunition.
3:27 The order to do so was given by Gen. Douglas MacArthur,
3:31 commander of the occupation force in Japan.
3:33 Bombers B-29 left the airbase on the island of Okinawa on 27 June, 1950.
3:40 They attacked railroad bridges, airfields, ground forces,
3:45 towns and cities of North Korea.
3:47 The United States of America have already entered into the war.
3:52 US President Harry S. Truman proposed
3:54 that UN gave military support to South Korea.
3:57 The USSR could have vetoed this proposition,
4:01 but its representative Yakov Malik was absent from all meetings.
4:07 Carrying out the decision of the Soviet Government,
4:09 he boycotted the meetings of the Council.
4:12 The UN refusal to recognize the People’s Republic of China
4:17 and include its representatives in the UN and Security Council was the reason.
4:21 As a result, seven out of nine present members of the Security Council
4:26 voted for Truman’s proposal.
4:29 41 countries out of 51 members of the UN
4:33 declared their support to South Korea.
4:37 The war was assuming an international character.
4:43 1950. China. Airfield near Shanghai.
4:48 You will have to learn Chinese in the scope needed to manage the flights.
4:52 Do we? All right, we studied German during World War II – there was a need.
4:57 – Anything might happen… – Anything might happen…
5:01 The plain crashed because the interpreter understood “a bit lower” as “low”.
5:06 “Anything might happen”?
5:12 – Thank you. – Know what he said?
5:16 – Matches. – All must learn Chinese. Is it clear?
5:20 Aye, sir.
5:23 Several Soviet fighter air regiments were deployed at the airfields near Shanghai.
5:31 And only one of all Soviet air divisions deployed in China —
5:35 the 151st Guards Air Fighter Division that arrived in June 1950 —
5:38 had jet aircraft in service.
5:42 Soviet pilots were in permanent ground alert,
5:45 and those having instructing experience were engaged
5:47 in training Chinese and Korean soldiers.
5:51 Viktor Koliadin, Hero of the Soviet Union,
5:54 Commander of the 28th Guards Fighter Air Regiment:
5:58 “We used to create pilots out of nothing. But they were very diligent and attentive.”
6:06 Zhou, why are you so thin? Eat like a bird? A pilot must gorge for three.
6:13 Stuff them fill. Or they might flake out during a sortie.
6:18 Yeah, we had one… One of my guys has flaked out once…
6:23 He fainted because of g-forces
6:29 while practicing stunts on a Yak…
6:35 they eat rice and nothing more. It’s not enough…
6:39 Stuff them! Stuff them fill!... Nothing should be left on the plates!
6:43 Mark my words: war will sure to come on them. Us too…
6:59 Carrying out the decision of the UN Security Council, the US command
7:04 and its allies dispatched another 800 aircraft and ships —
7:09 19 US and 23 British and Australian ones — to Korea.
7:14 Gen. MacArthur was appointed to administer the operations of the UN forces.
7:21 On 27th June the forces of the Korean People’s Army occupied Seoul,
7:24 South Korean Capital and continued their offensive.
7:29 MacArthur ordered to bomb airfields in Pyongyang, capital of the DPRK.
7:49 We are over the target.
8:00 - The load has gone.
8:02 In early June 1950 it became obvious that the war promises to be long and hard.
8:14 1 July, 1950. South Korea. The Pusan Airfield.
8:26 – So, this is Osan, isn’t it? – It’s Pusan, and it’s a city.
8:31 Pusan, Osan — whatever…
8:41 Hey, where did you get the paper?
8:43 Someone left it in the plane. I’ll read it in a spare moment.
8:49 The so called “Task Force Smith” of 400 soldiers
8:53 supported by the artillery advanced in the direction of the village of Osan.
9:01 On taking up a position on a height, its soldiers were in elevated mood,
9:06 sure of easy victory.
9:10 Hey, Sam, this is what General Church said:
9:13 “We’ll drive the North Koreans out,
9:14 and if the Russians intervene, we’ll drive them out too.”
9:29 In 1950s the public opinion concerning the USSR turned to obviously negative.
9:36 The Americans believed that the Soviet Union
9:40 would have been thwacked by Nazi Germany
9:42 if it had not been aided by US with planes,
9:44 powdered eggs, tanks automobiles and canned stewed meat;
9:48 that the Soviet Army could never have reached Berlin
9:51 if it hand not been for the Allied landing in Europe.
9:55 The American military men who never saw Soviet weapons
9:59 in battle referred to it very skeptically.
10:02 The Soviet weapons and military equipment of World War II
10:05 was the core of the Korean People’s Army.
10:08 Its armored forces had T-34-85 tanks and SU-76M self-propelled guns.
10:16 Despite Kim Ill Sung harmonizing his military plans
10:19 with the Soviet General Staff,
10:21 Soviet officers were strictly prohibited from direct engagement.
10:30 South Korean capital fell on 28th June, 1950.
10:35 A People’s Army’s armored brigade reached the blown up bridge over the Han River,
10:40 already restored by the sappers by 3rd July.
10:45 At next day’s dawn North Korean units passed
10:48 to the offensive and captured Incheon,
10:51 the main sea gateway of the Yellow Sea, and Suwon —
10:55 a large city on the south of Seoul.
11:03 The tanks of the northerners launched the attack
11:07 on the village of Osan in the early morning of 5th July.
11:27 Company 1! Show them, guys! Fire!
11:32 Four out of 36 tanks were blown up, but the other did not turn back.
11:42 Joe, the round!
12:00 The Americans opened fire from the guns, antitank rifles and grenade launchers.
12:26 Get down! Get down, guys!
12:35 The defense of the Task Force Smith collapsed.
12:39 The rest US infantrymen scattered in the rice fields in panic.
12:45 The encounter with the T-34s developed six years ago deeply shocked them.
12:56 American recoilless guns and antitank rifles Bazooka
13:01 proved ineffective against the Soviet T-34s.
13:05 So the United Stated had to urgently deliver 3.5 inch Super Bazooka systems.
13:12 And it was not before August that rearmed US infantry
13:16 became successful in fighting against T-34s,
13:18 having reduced their advantage to minimum.
13:21 The 24th Infantry Division took up defense along the Kum River.
13:26 Its headquarters headed by William F. Dean was located in the city of Taejon.
13:32 On 14th July units of the northerners surrounded the garrison of Kongju.
13:37 400 US soldiers and officers were taken prisoner.
13:40 The Americans withdrew to Taejon.
13:43 The command of the Korean People’s Army
13:45 carried out its seizure having taken into account
13:47 the recommendations of the Soviet military advisers experienced
13:50 in the tactics of World War II.
13:54 One division approached Taejon from the west,
13:58 one from the north-west and the 105th Armored Division from the north-north-west.
14:04 Attacking simultaneously they broke into the city by 6 o’clock in the morning.
14:10 About 1,200 US and South Korean soldiers and officers were killed.
14:16 108 were taken prisoner.
14:19 Only few could escape.
14:21 Nothing was known of Gen. Dean, commander of the division, for a long time.
14:26 Wounded, he was hiding in the woods until taken prisoner.
14:31 The loss of the 24th Division made the US command radically review its strategy
14:39 and think of possible implications in case the Soviet forces would enter into the war…
14:47 15th August, 1950. The Tyoply Stan Airfield.
14:54 What the hell?
14:59 The Korean War was something very distant
15:01 to the pilots of the Moscow Military District.
15:05 The pilots of the 176th Guards Fighter Air Regiment
15:08 were familiarizing themselves with the jet-plane MiG-15.
15:13 Serega, wait.
15:15 Be honest, what’s happened? Why did you fell behind?
15:22 The plane started turning at 970.
15:25 I opened out the throttle, but it didn’t obey the elevators. So, I had to slow down.
15:33 Bullshit. Just tell frankly that you’ve fallen out of the formation.
15:37 We will not have much praise
15:38 if we demonstrate things like this during the parade.
15:42 However, it turned out that Sergey Kramarenko was right.
15:46 he MiG-15 wings were not stiff enough,
15:50 so they voluntarily changed their angles of incidence at high speeds —
15:53 in other words, the wings started curling.
15:57 This caused the difference in wings’ lift force and the plane stated turning.
16:02 This phenomenon was called “wing heaviness”.
16:06 While the designers were working on curing this drawback,
16:09 the pilots had to, “fly out each plane for wing heaviness”,
16:13 as they used to say.
16:14 Meanwhile the regiment was in the preparations to the parade
16:18 on the occasion of the USSR Air Force Day celebration.
16:23 But the parade wasn’t held because of the weather.
16:27 The pilots were disappointed.
16:39 Yeah, the weather’s nice indeed. So much preparation…
16:45 All right, we’ll fly over Red Square on the 1st of May.
16:52 Neither Ivan Kozhedub not his command knew that
16:56 they were not to fly over Red Square the next year too.
17:04 On 25th June, 1950, the North Korean Army turned to the offence.
17:09 Having broken down the obstinate resistance of the southerners
17:12 it reached the southern coast of the peninsula.
17:15 On 27th June commander Gen. W. H. Walker delivered a speech
17:19 before the troops defending the bridgehead near the Pusan port:
17:24 “There will be no retreating, withdrawal, or readjustment
17:28 of the lines or any other term you choose.
17:31 There is no line behind us to which we can retreat…
17:34 We must fight until the end… We are going to win."
17:38 Walton Harris Walker. 4-star General.
17:42 Due to his low and stout stature he was nicknamed Bulldog.
17:46 During World War II he commanded an armored division
17:49 and later a corps at the Western Front.
17:51 The commander of the US Eighth Army in Japan since 1948.
17:57 In 1950 he was assigned as commander of the US ground force
18:01 in Korea and later of all UN ground force.
18:05 Died in a car accident near Seoul.
18:08 The US tank M41 was named “Walker Bulldog” in his honor.
18:14 By 1st August, 1950, the UN troops and South Korean units
18:18 did retreat, still holding Pusan, a big Korean city and port.
18:24 The Korean People’s Army reversed to defense all along the frontline.
18:29 The US aviation completely dominated the air.
18:34 Continuous flow of ammunition, equipment
18:38 and food were brought into Pusan by both air and sea.
18:42 The US command redeployed several US divisions
18:45 and a UN force from Japan to Korea.
18:49 Des Guilfoyle, private of the Australian Army:
18:52 “I knew that the country named Korea existed,
18:56 but I could hardly show its location on the map.
18:58 I encountered a notice in a paper about the conscription of volunteers.
19:01 A two-year trip abroad seemed very attractive to me.”
19:10 Milton Cotty, Mustang fighter pilot of the 77th Air Squadron
19:13 of the Australian Air Force:
19:16 There are railroad tunnels to the north of Taegu.
19:21 The North Koreans used them to hide their trucks in the nighttime.
19:25 We decided to attack the tunnels hedgehopping over the rails.
19:29 Attack! Cotty’s covering.
19:31 The missile volley and a steep ascending right over the mountain slope.
19:35 The explosion was followed by puffs of smoke blowing out of the other end of the tunnel.
19:40 The ones in the tunnel seemed to have a hard time indeed…
19:45 The North Korean army had lost over half of its manpower
19:50 and about 40% of its guns by that time.
19:53 The number of their tanks reduced to 40.
19:57 But the most important thing was that the US aviation activities
20:01 made the delivery of the ammunition,
20:03 food and medicines to the troops almost impossible.
20:08 T. Shtykov, the USSR’s representative in the DPRK,
20:12 telegraphed to Stalin on 19th August, 1950:
20:16 Kim Ill Sung is very nervous about the American heavy bombardments
20:19 of the North Korean troops in August.
20:24 The Koreans suffer great losses without any opportunity to somehow resist.
20:29 They ask whether it’s possible to send international air forces
20:33 to cover the ground troops.
20:35 The “international air forces” meant the air forces of the USSR and China.
20:42 But Stalin was adamant:
20:45 Comrade Kim Ill Sung should not be disappointed
20:48 in not having continuous success in the war against the invaders.
20:52 Young Soviet Republic’s situation was far worse; yet, it won.
20:58 A direct engagement with the US troops and air force
21:01 was not part of the plans of the Soviet command.
21:06 But the war made adjustments.
21:16 Commander… Konstantin Korpayev’s Boston… brought down.
21:23 The crew died. Here.
21:31 A Soviet bomber Douglas DB-7 Boston
21:34 of the 36th Mine and Torpedo Air Regiment of the Soviet Pacific Fleet
21:38 was on its training flight near the Soviet naval base located in Port Arthur.
21:45 4 September, 1950. The Yellow Sea.
21:54 Commander, a group of the planes are above us. Seem American.
22:04 Never mind. We are not at war with them.
22:11 Commander! They are approaching.
22:19 Give a defensive round. Be careful not to hit someone.
22:28 Yes, sir.
22:35 Commander, we are being shot at!
22:38 Serioga!
22:41 The Soviet bomber was brought down by F4U Corsair fighters
22:45 from the USS Valley Forge aircraft carrier.
22:47 The crew of Sr. Lt. Konstantin Korpayev died.
22:53 The US command apologized to the Soviet party,
22:57 presenting the incident as a result of a sad mistake.
23:01 However, it was obvious that the tension between the two countries was growing,
23:05 pushing the parties toward a head-on clash.
23:10 Moscow was watching the Kim Ill Sung actions with worry.
23:14 S.M. Shtemenko, Chief of the Soviet Armed Forces' General Staff,
23:17 reported Stalin on the course of the warfare daily.
23:21 Special concert was caused by the swift transfer of the US forces from Japan.
23:27 The Soviet command refused Kim Ill Sung from employing the Soviet advisers
23:30 directly on the command posts of the North Korean units.
23:35 Back on 5th June, the North Korean leader was proposed to develop the plan
23:40 of possible retreat in case the Americans consolidated their position
23:43 near the Pusan port.
23:45 Kim Ill Sung ignored this demand.
23:49 Ignoring the recommendations from Moscow caused fatal consequences.
23:54 On the night of 31 August, the units of the Korean People’s Army
23:58 launched their assault on the Pusan bridgehead.
24:01:00 They crossed the Naktong River and advanced for 10 more kilometers.
24:07:00 At the same time, another force directed its attack between the US
24:12:00 and South Korean troops to the north of Taegu.
24:15:00 It succeeded too.
24:19:00 On 5th September Gen. Walker was about to command retreat.
24:24:00 It seemed that the US defense would collapse
24:27:00 if another battalion of the northerners would go into action.
24:30:00 But the North Koreans had no more reserve.
24:33:00 Their frontline was constantly bombed;
24:37:00 they were running out of ammunition, gas and medicines.
24:41:00 Formally, the battle for the Pusan bridgehead ended in a draw,
24:46:00 but in fact the Americans won.
24:49:00 The advance of the People’s Army was blocked.
24:54:00 On 10th September, 1950, seven men under Sgt. Clark – 5 Americans
25:00:00 and 2 Koreans – landed on a small island 15 kilometers away from the Inchon port.
25:07:00 Their mission was to define more precisely the time
25:11:00 of the tides and discover the enemy’s defenses.
25:15:00 The US and UN forces were in preparations
25:18:00 to the landing Operation Chromite and seizure of the Inchon port.
25:22:00 Inchon, formerly called Chemulpo,
25:25:00 is the largest sea port on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula
25:28:00 in the Kyonggi (Chemulpo) Bay of the Yellow Sea.
25:31:00 It was here that the Russian cruiser Varyag
25:35:00 and gunboat Koreyets accepted a loosing battle against a Japanese squadron.
25:41:00 Both ships were riddled with Japanese shells.
25:46:00 Captain Vsevolod Rudnev of Varyag decided to destroy both ships.
25:52:00 Varyag and Koreyets were blown up and scuttled.
25:56:00 There were not more than 3000 North Korean soldiers and officers
26:00:00 and only 7 guns near Inchon.
26:04:00 Wolmido Island that covered the port from the west was defended
26:07:00 by two companies of marines and five guns only.
26:13:00 The UN assigned the landing forces outnumbering the port garrison 20 times.
26:19:00 All power of the US Seventh Fleet — 257 ships and about 500 aircraft —
26:25:00 was involved to back up the landing of the troops.
26:31:00 It was at the Battle of Inchon
26:33:00 that helicopters were put into the field for the first time.
26:38:00 Igor Sikorsky, born in Kiev, Ukraine, father of the heavy aviation
26:43:00 of the Russian Empire, was one of the most famous designers of helicopters.
26:47:00 Things were not well with him after he emigrated to the USA.
26:51:00 His meeting with S. Rachmaninoff
26:54:00 who lent $5,000 (approximately $80,000 in 2010 dollars)
26:58:00 to the compatriot made a dramatic change.
27:03:00 Sikorsky founded a design bureau in 1923
27:06:00 that produced the first helicopter 16 years later.
27:10:00 The US Department of Defense had become Sikorsky’s permanent customer
27:14:00 for helicopters since 1946.
27:17:00 Helicopters by Sikorsky— the four-seat H-5D and the transport helicopter H-19 —
27:22:00 were employed during the Korean War.
27:32:00 10 September 1950. Wolmido Island.
27:40:00 Hey, wake up!
27:58:00 On 10 September the artillery and air bombardment of Wolmido Island began.
28:11:00 Charlie Carmine, marine: “We saw ships shell the city and surrounding hills.
28:20:00 Corsairs launched rockets and dropped bombs and attacked the coastline.
28:25:00 The landing ships opened fire from the rocket launchers.
28:28:00 It was a really impressive sight.”
28:34:00 4 US cruisers and 5 destroyers, supported by the aviation,
28:40:00 turned the island’s surface into the lunar landscape.
28:53:00 The landing of the UN’s 50,000 force began on 15th September.
28:58:00 The troops marched into Inchon and moved toward Seoul the next day.
29:04:00 The city was in active preparation to the defense.
29:06:00 About 100,000 of its mobilized citizens
29:09:00 had built over 600 barricades within one day.
29:12:00 Two infantry and one mechanized division were sent
29:15:00 by Kim Ill Sung to support the city’s garrison,
29:18:00 but this force could not make a difference, so the city was abandoned.
29:23:00 The US units passed to the offensive near Taegu on 16th September.
29:29:00 The 2nd Army Group of the Korean People’s Army,
29:33:00 having lost almost all its artillery
29:35:00 and transport, was retreating to the 38th parallel through the mountains.
29:39:00 Soon, its remnants changed to the guerilla action.
29:44:00 The war rolled up to the north,
29:46:00 towards the borders of China and USSR.
29:50:00 8th October, 1950. USSR. Primorski Krai. The Sukhaya Rechka Airfield.
29:52:00 The pilots of the 821st Fighter Air Regiment
29:54:00 gathered at the command post.
29:57:00 Squadron 1 practices formation flying of pairs and wings…
30:02:00 Squadron 2 takes an en-route operation.
30:05:00 The route will be specified by the executive officer.
30:08:00 Squadron 3… What is that?
30:13:00 8 planes of the regiment were damaged
30:16:00 as a result of the attack of the US Shooting Star jet-fighters on the airfield.
30:23:00 The Soviet government lodged a protest to the UN.
30:27:00 US President H. Truman admitted the fault of the USA
30:32:00 and even offered to compensate the damages.
30:35:00 Just look what these bastards have done.
30:37:00 It’s going to be now just like in the Boston case! Saying, “it was a mistake”…
30:41:00 The US president said that the commander of the US AF regiment
30:44:00 in the Far East was removed from duty,
30:48:00 and the pilots were brought before the tribunal.
30:53:00 The Americans said that the young
30:56:00 and inexperienced pilots mistakenly flew into the USSR territory
30:59:00 and mistook the Soviet Airfield for a Korean one.
31:02:00 The US pilots who acted in the incident were never tried.
31:08:00 Pilot Allen Diefendorf has served with the US AF for 33 years;
31:11:00 pilot Alton Quanbeck 22 years.
31:15:00 The latter worked for the CIA
31:17:00 and the U.S. House Intelligence Committee until retired.
31:22:00 The incident caused the immediate response of the Soviet Government.
31:27:00 Five motorized divisions and additional air units were sent to the border.
31:32:00 Another two Soviet fighter air divisions
31:35:00 operating the MiG-9 jet-planes arrived in China.
31:38:00 By that time the UN forces had closed the encirclement near Seoul.
31:43:00 Almost 100,000 North Korean soldiers were taken prisoner.
31:47:00 Gen. MacArthur radioed to the northerners his demand to capitulate
31:52:00 which was rejected by the North Korean government.
31:55:00 On 2nd October the South Korean units crossed the 38th parallel.
32:01:00 Early in the morning of 11th October US aviation and artillery delivered
32:06:00 a blow on the positions of the North Korean troops at the 38th parallel.
32:12:00 Raw units of the North Koreans could not stand the avalanche of fire and fled.
32:19:00 The next day the South Koreans captured the port city of Wonsan
32:24:00 and approached the eastern outskirts of Pyongyang.
32:27:00 The defeated units of the People’s Army were retreating toward the Chinese border
32:31:00 and changing to the guerilla action.
32:34:00 Pyongyang had fallen.
32:36:00 The UN forces launched the offensive northwards,
32:39:00 in the direction of Manchuria border.
32:42:00 Syngman Rhee declared the conquered territories annexed
32:46:00 by the Republic of Korea.
32:48:00 He launched large-scale repressions against the communists and pro-communists.
32:53:00 According to the modern South Korean researches,
32:57:00 the victims of the repressions numbered at least 40,000 people
33:00:00 in the north and south of the peninsula.
33:02:00 But the fear to unleash World War III
33:05:00 kept both parties from excessive aggressions near the border.
33:11:00 The US Joint Chiefs of Staff recommended MacArthur
33:15:00 not to use any forces in the Korean provinces bordering the USSR and China
33:20:00 other than the South Korean ones.
33:25:00 Bombardments of the bridges across the Yalu River,
33:28:00 the boundary river between China and Korea, were prohibited.
33:31:00 Mao Zedong exercised caution too.
33:34:00 During his meeting with Pak Ill U, Minister for Internal Affairs of the DPRK, he said:
33:39:00 “I will provide any aid in my power, but I will not send the troops.”
33:43:00 Mao explained that in case of China providing the aid to North Korea,
33:48:00 the USSR would be involved in the war too
33:50:00 because of being bound with China by the military assistance treaty.
33:54:00 However, Stalin reassured Mao Zedong:
33:58:00 “Should we really be afraid of this? I don’t think so,
34:01:00 because taken together we’ll have more power than the USA and UK.
34:05:00 If the war cannot be avoided, let it happen now, not several years later,
34:09:00 when the Japanese militarism is restored as the US ally,
34:13:00 with the US having Syngman Ree’s Korea as a ready bridgehead.
34:20:00 After a long hesitation, in mid October, 1950,
34:24:00 Mao decided to advance his troops to the aid of North Korea.
34:31:00 Peng Dehuai, the most famous Chinese military leader
34:35:00 of the time seconded the Chinese Communist Party leader.
34:39:00 Peng Dehuai, Marshal of the People’s Republic of China.
34:44:00 Commanding general of the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army during the Korean War.
34:48:00 Minister of Defense of China since 1954.
34:52:00 In 1956 publicly criticized Mao’s cult of personality and policy.
34:57:00 Was arrested during the Cultural Revolution, interrogated,
35:00:00 tortured and publicly humiliated in the prison
35:03:00 and at the so called “meetings of struggle against Peng Dehuai”.
35:07:00 He died at the age of 76 in the prison hospital.
35:11:00 He was buried under someone other’s mane.
35:13:00 Rehabilitated posthumously in 1978.
35:17:00 On 15th October Truman and MacArthur met on Wake Island.
35:22:00 Truman asked the commander’s opinion about the odds of the Soviet
35:26:00 or Chinese intervention in the conflict.
35:30:00 Very little…The Chinese have 300,000 men in Manchuria.
35:35:00 Of these probably not more than 100–115,000 are distributed along the Yalu River.
35:40:00 Only 50–60,000 could be gotten across the Yalu River…
35:45:00 Now that we have bases for our Air Force in Korea,
35:48:00 if the Chinese tried to get down to Pyongyang
35:51:00 there would be the greatest slaughter.”
35:53:00 MacArthur could not even imagine how he underestimated
35:56:00 the number of the Chinese troops along the border.
36:13:00 October, 1950. Command post of 28th Fighter Air Regiment.
36:23:00 A telegram from the headquarters.
36:27:00 Here, read it.
36:32:00 We are ordered to redeploy to the Anshan airfield.
36:35:00 So, what does this mean?
36:38:00 This means… that we to come into action…
36:47:00 In late October 1950 three Soviet air fighter regiments
36:53:00 were deployed at the airfields of Mukden, Anshan and Liaoyang.
36:58:00 Their mission was to cover important industrial and administrative centers
37:03:00 of the North-Western China at the Mukden axis.
37:07:00 Tell you men not to use Russian on the radio.
37:11:00 Yes, sir.
37:13:00 But there was no order to cross the border and come into action yet.
37:22:00 October, 1950. A US command post.
37:35:00 The US officers interrogated two soldiers who deserted to the US side.
37:41:00 The Americans were surprised to find out
37:44:00 that the defectors were Chinese, not Koreans.
37:48:00 – What are they saying? – I don’t understand
37:52:00 I think it’s Chinese… We need a Chinese interpreter.
37:56:00 When the chief of intelligence was reported of the outcome of the interrogation,
37:59:00 he ignored the fact of the appearance of the defectors.
38:03:00 Meanwhile at least 200,000 of the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army
38:07:00 had been gathered in secret along the Yalu River.
38:12:00 Chinese People’s Volunteer Army was a formation of the PRC’s armed forces
38:16:00 that fought on the side of North Korea.
38:21:00 According to some sources, up to 780,000 of Chinese soldiers
38:25:00 participated in the Korean War.
38:27:00 They were armed with small arms and artillery armaments of Soviet make,
38:33:00 as well as with captured Japan and American weapons in the beginning.
38:37:00 They had no radios, so the communication between the units was done
38:41:00 through messengers or with help of light signals.
38:44:00 At the beginning of the war the Chinese units
38:47:00 were poorly clothed and provided with shoes.
38:50:00 Nevertheless, they had an indisputable advantage:
38:54:00 they knew the tactics of partisan warfare perfectly.
38:57:00 Literally soaking through the US positions,
39:00:00 the Chinese boldly attacked them from the flanks and rear,
39:02:00 displaying great determination and fearlessness.
39:06:00 On 28-29th October Chinese people’s volunteers
39:11:00 hammered the South Korean units and put them to flight.
39:16:00 Another surprise was in store for the US command — this time in the air.
39:22:00 1 November, 1950.
39:25:00 Three MiGs under Maj. Anatoly Bordun
39:29:00 was on a patrolling mission in the Andong — Sinuiju area.
39:37:00 Ten F-80 Shooting Star jet planes suddenly appeared on the horizon.
39:44:00 Lt. S. Khominich attacked the leading four
39:47:00 and brought down an F-80 from the short distance.
39:50:00 The Americans fell upon the MiGs, but the Bordun pair counterattacked them.
39:56:00 The first air fight between jet aircraft ended up
40:00:00 with the victory of the Soviet pilots.
40:02:00 Guards Lt. Semion Fiodorovich Khominich was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
40:10:00 Winter came.
40:12:00 The US forces took up defensive positions along the Chongchon River
40:16:00 in preparations to a new offensive.
40:19:00 Hey, Mike! Why are you dressing the Christmas tree?
40:23:00 General MacArthur said that we must speed up preparations
40:27:00 and reach the Yalu River, so we could be back home for Christmas.
40:32:00 The moods in the US units were quite optimistic.
40:36:00 The song “I'll Be Home for Christmas” sung during World War II
40:41:00 was especially popular among the soldiers at that time.
40:45:00 The North Korean command withdrew its forces
40:50:00 to the 38th parallel to reman and refill them with the ammunition.
40:54:00 Gen. Peng Dehuai:
40:56:00 “We used the tactics of deliberate demonstration of our weakness,
41:00:00 indulging the enemy deliberately pumping its arrogance towards us
41:05:00 and drawing it deeply into our territory.”
41:10:00 Units under Peng Dehuai numbered by that time 634,000 men
41:15:00 and had 2,492 cannons.
41:19:00 There was a 360,000 force and 2,300 guns under MacArthur.
41:25:00 The Americans had an absolute advantage in the aviation, ships and tanks,
41:30:00 but it was of small use under the conditions of the severe winter,
41:33:00 impassible roads and mountains.
41:36:00 The planes stayed at the airfields,
41:38:00 and the armored machinery skidded in the snow
41:41:00 and thick mud because of formidable weather conditions.
41:44:00 However, the offence of the UN forces was not long in coming.
41:49:00 An artillery cannonade sounded and the Americans started moving forward quickly.
41:56:00 The Chinese allowed them to come into the pre-prepared traps,
42:01:00 and blitzed on them on 25th November, at 20:00, under the cover of twilight.
42:06:00 The Chinese tried to get to close quarters with the enemy
42:09:00 in a maximum short time to become beyond the reach of the US artillery.
42:23:00 Bayonets and grenades were of wide use.
42:25:00 The Chinese were peerless in hand-to-hand fighting.
42:30:00 The South Koreas troops were gripped by panic
42:34:00 and turned into unmanageable crowds in several hours and flew.
42:40:00 Only American, British and Turkish contingents retreated slowly,
42:44:00 repulsing attacks.
42:52:00 The retreat turned into the penetration of armed groups
42:55:00 through enemy’s ambushes that gave rise to a famous phrase:
42:59:00 “We never retreat — we attack in the opposite direction.”
43:04:00 The offensive of MacArthur failed dismally.
43:08:00 Only rare sorties of the US air forces caused damage to the attackers.
43:13:00 The Americans were bombing communications
43:17:00 and dropping napalm, an incendiary mixture, on the enemy.
43:20:00 Napalm is an incendiary gelling mixture.
43:24:00 It is prepared of liquid fuel (gasoline or kerosene)
43:27:00 and a special thickener powder.
43:29:00 Its combustion temperature reaches up to 1,600 centigrade.
43:33:00 When getting on a human body, the burning dark-brown mass sticks to it,
43:37:00 burning up the skin, muscles, tendons, blood vessels, nerve tissues and bones.
43:43:00 A survivor will remain a cripple forever.
43:46:00 Napalm was invented in the USA in 1942.
43:50:00 It was used during World War II, the Korean War,
43:53:00 the Vietnam War and later, including against the civilians.
44:00:00 November 1950. Kislovodsk, USSR. Ivan Nikitovich Kozhedub and his wife
44:05:00 were spending their holiday in Kislovodsk in the beginning of November 1950
44:10:00 – Here he lives. – Thank you.
44:14:00 There was a knock on their room’s door on the second day of their holiday.
44:30:00 Comrade Kozhedub? Pack up, you will go with us.
44:42:00 – Can I dress? – Of course.
45:04:00 According to the stories of my friends, the situation was quite common;
45:07:00 so when in the car I was thinking hard — what for?
45:11:00 tried to recall what anecdotes I told and who to…”
45:49:00 Comrade Colonel, Major-General Vasily Stalin,
45:55:00 Commander of the Air Force in the Moscow Military District will talk to you.”
46:06:00 It’s Colonel Kozhedub.
46:09:00 Look, Vania, quit your holiday.
46:11:00 There’s an urgent business, so I need you in Moscow.
46:18:00 Aye, Comrade General.
46:26:00 Look, major, got anything strong to drink?
46:31:00 Unfortunately, no, sir.
46:36:00 That’s a pity.
46:38:00 On 17th November I. Kozhedub was appointed commander
46:41:00 of the 324th Air Fighter Division.
46:45:00 The pilots of the 196th, 176th and 32nd Guards Fighter Air Regiments
46:53:00 gathered two days later at the officer club at the Kubinka air base.
46:56:00 The Government of North Korea asked the Soviet government
47:00:00 to send pilots flying jet aircraft to protect the country’s people
47:04:00 dying in the bombardments by the American aggressors.
47:08:00 Who of you volunteers?
47:11:00 Everyone raised his hand.
47:13:00 But only 60 men of 100 were selected — the best trained ones…
47:20:00 Well, we’ll give them a good dressing-down with our MiGs.
47:28:00 You, Comrade Colonel, will have to fight there
47:30:00 in a way different from that you used to.
47:32:00 Use your experience, ruse of war and new machinery.
47:38:00 I prohibit independent sorties.
47:48:00 Watch out, Vania… I do know what tricks you are able of…
48:01:00 The planes were disassembled and loaded on the flatcars.
48:06:00 The pilots and technicians gave away their documents.
48:10:00 The division personnel’s dress was not changed to civilian;
48:14:00 instead, the insignia was taken off from all soldiers and officers.
48:20:00 The train started off, leaving those who came to see the men off.
48:23:00 Many of them saw their husbands and fathers for the last time.
48:35:00 30 November, 1950. Washington.
48:39:00 The United States will use all necessary means,
48:43:00 including all the weapons that we have.
48:53:00 Mr. President! You said “all the weapons that we have”.
48:56:00 Does that mean that there is active consideration of the use
48:58:00 of the atomic bombs?
48:59:00 Always there has been active consideration of their use…
49:02:00 The world poised on the brink of precipice.
0:07 December 17, 1950. China
0:24 Commander, there are four fighters ahead.
0:31 I can see them. They are ours.
0:41 Damn it!
0:53 What has happened to the commander?
1:01 He ejected. I can see his parachute.
1:05 Who was that? Whose planes were they?
1:11 I wish I knew…
1:44 THE KOREAN WAR
1:50 Starting from the first days of the Korean War
1:52 the American aviation was bombing the North Korean
1:55 military positions and civilian settlements.
1:59 By the end of August B-29s were dropping 800 tons of bombs every day.
2:06 One third of them consisted of napalm bombs.
2:09 From June to the end of October of 1950 over 3 mln liters
2:16 of napalm were poured on North Korea.
2:21 The commander of the UNO troops in Korea
2:23 General Douglas MacArthur ordered to create a desert
2:27 between the front and the Chinese border by destroying
2:30 every “building, plant, city or village” from the air.
2:37 That order was carried out rigorously. During the attack
2:41 at the industrial center Hinnam on July 31, 1950
2:45 the American planes dropped 500 tons of bombs
2:49 onto the civilian population.
2:51 The flames that engulfed anything live were 50 to 100 meters high.
2:58 When China joined in the hostilities American bombardments intensified.
3:03 The cities of Siniyzhu and Khveren were burned to the ground with napalm.
3:07 By the end of November the zone between the Yalu River
3:11 and the UNO positions turned into the scorched earth.
3:22 General MacArthur demanded more radical measures from Truman.
3:28 He drew up a list of targets on the territories of China and Korea
3:31 and asked for 25 nuclear bombs.
3:37 The retreating Korean People’s Army had virtually no fighters
3:41 or anti-aircraft artillery.
3:43 Only the Soviet aviation divisions
3:46 stationed on the territory of China in border zones with Korea
3:50 could change the situation in the air.
3:54 December, 1950. China. The head-quarters of the 50th fighters’ division
3:57 On December 17, 1950 a group of planes
4:01 of the 177th fighters’ regiment was attacked by the unknown fighters.
4:07 The commander of the group was shot down.
4:09 Supporting aircrafts engaged into a short battle, but the fighters retreated.
4:12 These red-nosed planes didn’t look either like the “jokers”
4:15 or like the “crosses”. They were more maneuverable
4:17 plus their speed was higher.
4:20 New American jet fighters F-86 Sabres were sent to Korea.
4:26 They are serious enemies…
4:34 F-86 Sabre, a jet fighter, was added to the armory of the US air defense in 1949.
4:41 Starting from December of 1950
4:44 it was actively used in the Korean War.
4:46 The Sabre was heavier than the MIG but the engine capacity
4:49 of the two planes was similar. Therefore the light MIGs
4:53 were faster to gain heights and the heavy Sabres
4:56 were faster when diving.
4:59 It determined the tactics of the dogfights.
5:01 The MIGs were escaping the enemy by flying higher
5:04 and the Sabres – by diving down. The MIG was armed
5:08 with one 37-mm and two 23-mm guns.
5:12 The Sabre had six 12,7 mm machine guns.
5:19 Vladimir Zabelin remembers:
5:21 “All the sky was ornamented by inversion traces of the Sabres.
5:25 One can’t confuse their hooks with anything else.
5:27 A mechanized wing with leading-edge flaps
5:30 and huge air brakes allowed for abrupt maneuvers.
5:33 Our MIG is drawing huge circles. It’s not steady at the turns”.
5:40 The first meeting of the MIGs and the Sabres
5:43 happened above the southern bank of the Yalu River
5:46 on December 17, 1950.
5:50 It ended with victory of Colonel Bruce Hinton.
5:54 The MIGs’ pilots avenged on them in five days.
5:58 The enemies were just studying each other.
6:02 The first battles demonstrated that it’s very difficult
6:06 to tell a Sabre from a MIG at high speed.
6:13 We have to work out some signs to tell our planes from the enemy ones.
6:19 Lieutenant Levitskiy,
6:21 you used to fight during the Second World War.
6:24 What would you say about that?
6:26 During our landing on the D-Day our planes
6:30 bore three white and three black stripes across the fuselage.
6:35 They were very visible.
6:39 To tell their own planes from the enemy ones
6:43 the Americans started to paint the wings of their planes.
6:46 They draw multicolored stripes on them, chessboards etc.
6:53 The UNO troops were retreating along the entire front.
6:56 On December 8 Pyongyang was seized by the troops
6:59 of the Chinese People’s Volunteers and the Korean People’s Army.
7:05 The American soldiers were hastily evacuating through Hinnam port.
7:09 In the course of three weeks the ships
7:11 took away 105 thousand soldiers, 17,000 machines,
7:16 350,000 tons of equipment and over 90,000 Korean refugees.
7:22 When leaving the Americans turned the port into ruins
7:25 by blowing up all their stock of explosives – 400 tons
7:28 of frozen dynamite and 500 one thousand pound aviation bombs.
7:34 Threatening with defeat MacArthur insisted
7:36 on moving the hostilities to the territory of China
7:39 and demanded powers to use the nuclear weapons.
7:43 He believed that 30 to 50 nuclear bombs
7:46 dropped along the borders of Korea and China
7:48 would create a radioactive belt from the Yellow
7:53 to the Japanese Sea and thus isolate Korea.
7:57 The US President refused him.
8:00 Truman understood that invasion into China
8:03 would increase the possibility
8:05 of the USSR’s open participation in the war.
8:08 “China and the USSR may send there more resources than we can.
8:12 America shall find a way to leave Korea without losing its dignity”.
8:18 The American administration
8:21 counted on the fact that President Truman’s claim
8:25 dated November 30, 1950 on the possibility
8:29 to use the nuclear weapon would stop the USSR and China.
8:32 But it provoked a different and much unexpected reaction.
8:39 Great Britain and France expressed their indignation openly.
8:43 They were soon joined by other states of Western Europe.
8:47 The Western newspapers wrote: “One of the most surprising
8:51 political shifts happened in Europe since the times of the war.
8:54 The free Europe rebelled against the US leadership”.
8:58 Europe feared the Kremlin reaction.
9:02 The Soviet planes with nuclear bombs couldn’t reach the USA
9:05 yet but they could fly to London and Paris.
9:09 The Soviet tanks could easily follow.
9:14 Truman promised the British that he wouldn’t use
9:17 the nuclear weapons without their knowing.
9:19 He prohibited General MacArthur from using
9:23 the nuclear weapons and even from discussing this issue in mass media.
9:28 On December 24, 1950 the Chinese
9:32 and North Korean troops came out to the 38th parallel
9:36 along its entire length. In the course of their offensive
9:40 they seized 4,000 prisoners, 120 guns and mortars and about 400 vehicles.
9:47 The UNO troops managed to burn some of their vehicles.
9:51 The UNO lost 36,000 people.
9:56 Two thirds of them were the Americans.
10:00 During the retreat General Walton Walker died in a car crush.
10:05 A new commander was appointed to replace him —
10:08 Matthew Ridgway. Soon he became the leading figure
10:12 of the allied troops in Korea. General Ridgway recalled:
10:16 “I met the retreating army in a few km to the north of Seoul.
10:21 I have never seen anything like that before.
10:24 The soldiers dropped their heavy artillery, machine guns and mortars.
10:27 Only some of them kept their automatic guns.
10:30 Everybody thought about only one thing — how to escape as soon as possible”.
10:35 Matthew Banker Ridgway was the general of the US Army.
10:39 In 1944 he headed the landing party of the allied troops during the D-Day.
10:46 On the eve of the Korean War he headed of the operative
10:49 and administrative department of the headquarters of the US army.
10:52 In 1951 after MacArthur’s resignation he was appointed
10:56 the commander of the American troops at the Far East
11:00 and the united UNO troops in Korea.
11:03 In December Kozhedub’s division came to China.
11:06 It consisted of two regiments that had 30 MIGs-15 each.
11:10 The regiments were to protect civilian objects, bridges,
11:13 dams and hydro-electric power plants.
11:16 That included the largest electric power plant of the region –
11:19 the Supung Hydro-Electric Power Plant.
11:21 It’s depicted on the state emblem of the Korean People’s Democratic Republic.
11:24 That power plant supplied electricity not only to Korea
11:27 but to the north-eastern China. The pilots were prohibited
11:31 from participating in battle missions and leaving the zone.
11:36 The technicians erased Soviet identification signs
11:39 on the aircrafts and painted the Korean ones instead.
11:46 In the night of the New Year the pilots gathered in the canteen.
11:50 Comrades!
12:03 Captain, be quick!
12:05 Yes. I’m coming. I’m coming.
12:24 Pour!
12:26 It’s so cold! I thought we’ll be in the south!
12:28 Comrades! We have the great honor…
12:30 The temperature is minus 38.
12:31 Be quiet! Be quiet! The commander is talking!
12:35 …but I believe that we’ll be worthy of the high title
12:40 of a Soviet fighter pilot!
12:45 And one more thing, friends.
12:50 There will be more losses. There will be. But I hope
12:56 that we’ll lose less people in the New Year. Happy New Year!
13:00 Happy New Year! Happy New Year!
13:18 What is that?
13:20 I don’t know.
13:21 Where is the interpreter?
13:22 There he is.
13:23 In Chi, come here. What is that?
13:27 I told my people that the Russians have their New Year today.
13:30 Is that the New Year performance?
13:32 It is.
13:33 When is your New Year?
13:34 We have the New Year in… February.
13:37 In February. All right.
13:46 General Ridgway didn’t want to risk his soldiers.
13:52 So in the morning of January 3, 1951 he gave an order
13:55 to withdraw the Eighth Army from Seoul.
13:58 The American troops were leaving by the bridges.
14:01 Hundreds of refugees were crossing the river
14:03 both to the right and to left of them.
14:06 Konstantin Stamatiou, a private of the Greek battalion, wrote:
14:10 “We saw refugees — women and children looking like live skeletons.
14:15 They were starving, they had no clothes on.
14:19 A father of a family offered us his 15-year old daughter for five dollars’.
14:24 Ridgway was one of the last to leave the city.
14:28 In his residence he left his old pajama pants with a note:
14:33 “To the commander of the Chinese Army
14:35 from the commander of the Eighth Army with the best wishes’.
14:39 Ridgway decided to leave the enemy behind, regroup and then counter-attack.
14:46 But the Chinese General Pan Dahuai
14:48 foresaw his plan and stopped his offensive in mid-January.
14:54 The new front line was along the 37th parallel.
14:58 The Communists seized Seoul, Inchon
15:01 and other strategically important centers.
15:04 But they could feel the lack of warm clothes and medicines.
15:08 Pan Dahuai believed that without rest, replenishments
15:12 and building of reliable defense further offensive would be a suicide.
15:16 Kim Il-sung objected to that.
15:18 But Stalin and Mao Zedong supported the General.
15:22 To re-arm and give troops the rest time was needed.
15:26 However in January 25 the UNO troops started offensive
15:29 to get Inchon and Seoul back.
15:34 Harsh battles started for the Capital of South Korea.
15:40 Soldier of the American Army Michael Chobuoka recalled:
15:44 “When we got to the village of Kudun we saw a terrible scene.
15:48 68 bodies of black American soldiers were scattered across the field.
15:54 The Chinese took their clothes, footwear, weapons
15:59 and sleeping bags which they prized very highly.
16:01 The guys froze together and looked like black marble statues”.
16:05 Pan Dahuai decided to secretly withdraw the main part
16:09 of the troops from the front and transfer them to a line
16:12 a bit to the south from the 38th parallel.
16:15 The Chinese reported to Moscow about this plan.
16:17 The Soviet General Headquarters found it well-grounded and well-worked out.
16:23 To great Kim Il-sung’s dissatisfaction on March 10, 1951 the retreat started.
16:31 The Chinese commander withdrew his troops in great order.
16:35 The fog hid the movements from the allied aviation.
16:40 On March 14 Seoul surrendered without a battle.
16:43 Another month later both warring parties appeared on the 38th parallel again.
16:50 The battles stopped. Temporarily.
16:54 The replenishment and supplies of the Chinese
16:57 and North Korean troops were brought in from China
16:59 by the bridges across the Yalu River.
17:01 That’s why the bridges by Andun and crossings in Siniychzhu
17:04 were the most important targets for the American bombers.
17:08 Only the Soviet MIGs could stop them.
17:12 At the end of March pilots of the 324th division came to Andun airfield.
17:18 They got new planes MIG-15-bis. They had a stronger engine and faster speed.
17:25 23-mm guns were positioned closer to the axle of the plane that allowed
17:29 for the increase of fire concentration.
17:33 Hero of the Soviet Union Victor Kolyadin wrote:
17:36 “Kozhedub’s division arrived,
17:38 and we were covering his pilots in the battles.
17:41 I was in the air and Kozhedub was in the command center.
17:44 We were fighting the bombers that came to bomb the bridges across the Yalu.
17:48 I was the last to land when the command center reported:
17:52 there was a B-29 bomber above the airfield”.
18:04 What is there?
18:07 I can see it. I’ll attack it.
18:15 I flew up but there were no bullets. The guns wouldn’t fire.
18:19 I have no bullets left!
18:23 Ram it!
18:28 What? Repeat!
18:33 Ram it! Go, go! Ram it!
18:40 Do ram it!
18:44 I landed and came to the command center. I asked him:
18:49 “What would I have rammed him with”? And he was laughing.
18:53 Kozhedub’s division started to participate in battles
18:56 on April 1, 1951. The first battle was unsuccessful:
19:02 one pilot died and they lost two planes.
19:05 Captain of the American Air Force James Jabara
19:08 shot down the plane of Senior Lieutenant Nikitchenko.
19:14 Yevgeniy Pepelyaev recalled:
19:16 “The introduction of the entire regiments and divisions
19:19 into aerial battles was wrong.
19:20 The hopes for the battle experience of the Great Patriotic War
19:23 weren’t justified. The pilots were not ready
19:26 for the aerial battles both morally and psychologically.
19:29 Five years of peaceful life made us all even.
19:31 Dogfights influence your psyche no matter whether you fought before or not”.
19:38 By April 10 in a result of massive bombardments of the American aviation
19:43 main bridges across the Yalu were seriously damaged.
19:48 The cargo was transported by the Siniychzhu bridge.
19:52 To destroy it on April 12 the American air force sent
19:56 over 40 B-29s there under the cover of fighters.
20:02 There were over 100 planes in total.
20:06 A message from the control center. We see a large group
20:08 of the enemy planes. They’re moving towards our airfield.
20:12 The speed?
20:13 500.
20:14 It’s too low for the fighters.
20:16 They are the bombers with the cover. Alert mode number one!
20:21 Sergey Kramarenko: “We had our breakfast
20:24 when we got an order: “Alert mode number one”.
20:29 It meant that you should get into the cabins
20:32 and be ready to fly out”.
20:39 Get everybody in the air.
20:40 Everybody?
20:41 – Yes, everybody. – Everybody?
20:42 The entire division! What is not clear?
20:46 Leave one pair of planes on duty on land.
20:50 Get everybody up in the air!
20:52 No sooner had we gotten into the planes
20:55 than we heard the order to take-off.
20:58 The fighters of two regiments flew out to intercept the bombers.
21:16 The 23rd ready to take off.
21:18 The 23rd, you may take off!
21:32 We’re moving to the north gaining height.
21:34 The mountains were above us, and the narrow blue stripe
21:36 of water was to the right. It was the Yalu River.
21:39 The North Korea lay further. The height was 5,000 meters.
21:43 Turn right!
21:47 The height is 7,000 m. I flew 500 meters higher above
21:52 the leading group. I took my place in the battle order.
22:00 A large group of planes in 50 km from you is flying towards you.
22:14 The enemy is ahead to the left and a bit lower.
22:18 The bombers are ahead, to the left and lower than you.
22:22 They are flying in rhombs from 4 lines three planes each.
22:25 A bit above you are dozens of fighters –
22:28 about a hundred of Thunderjets and Shooting Stars!
22:38 Oh, My God!
22:59 I’m attacking. Cover for me!
23:02 Kill the scum! Kill the invaders!
23:17 Turn left! We’re attacking the fighters!
23:20 The escort group had to engage in battle
23:23 with the enemy’s fighters
23:25 to distract them from protecting their bombers.
23:28 Dozens of parachutes were already in the air.
23:31 It seemed that a landing party was dropped.
23:34 But the battle was just beginning.
23:42 Vishnyakov flew onto the leader of the enemy group.
23:46 But when approaching the bombers
23:48 he was literally thrown out of the attack by a wall
23:50 of machine gun tracers. The pair of Ges successfully attacked
23:55 the Super-fortress of the second link.
24:02:00 The plane caught fire and dived down.
24:11:00 A flight of Sabres attacked the Milaushkin- Obraztsovpair that lagged behind.
24:15:00 They missed the start of the attack and were trying to catch up.
24:19:00 Milaushkin succeeded in escaping the Sabres’ fire
24:22:00 and continued pursuit of the flight of the Fortresses in the rear.
24:27:00 Borya, I’m attacking the leader. Yours is to the right.
24:30:00 The Fortress caught fire and started to descend.
24:35:00 Some bombers dropped their bombs and turned back.
24:39:00 They left behind a damaged bridge and the sky alive with parachutes.
24:45:00 Another four Fortresses that were on fire fell down or broke at the airfield.
24:52:00 About a hundred of American pilots were taken prisoners.
24:57:00 It’s believed that the MIGs shot down 10 bombers and 2 fighters.
25:02:00 The Americans confirm the destruction of four B-29s
25:06:00 and writing-off of two more after their landing at the airfield.
25:10:00 The Americans reported 14 shot down MIGs.
25:15:00 However, all the Soviet planes returned to its airfield.
25:19:00 The Americans called April 12 “The Black Thursday”.
25:25:00 The Commander-in-Chief of the air force at the Far East
25:27:00 General Stratemeyer prohibited B-29s from flying
25:31:00 to Siniychzhou until effective methods of escorting them were found.
25:37:00 But they were never found.
25:39:00 No B-29 was ever seen by the Siniychzou bridges.
25:44:00 The Americans nicknamed the air corridor
25:48:00 controlled by the Soviet pilots along the southern bank
25:50:00 of the Yalu River “The MIGs Alley”. The Soviet pilots
25:55:00 were training the Chinese pilots who started
25:58:00 to appear in the sky more and more often.
26:00:00 During the entire summer of 1951 they shot down
26:05:00 271 enemy planes from the MIGs.
26:08:00 They lost 231 fighters, though.
26:12:00 When meeting the Thunderjets and Shooting Stars
26:15:00 the Chinese in the MIGs had huge advantages.
26:18:00 They often made the Americans escape or achieved victories.
26:23:00 Sergey Kramarenko: “A Chinese regiment was stationed at our airfield too.
26:28:00 They were flying MIGs, like we did.
26:31:00 I was ordered to give the Chinese pilots some lessons.
26:34:00 I came to their barracks at the opposite side of the airfield.
26:39:00 A few planes have just landed. The Chinese pilots were in them.
26:44:00 I was surprised to see that one of the pilots
26:47:00 turned off the engine, got out of the cabin and started to hug and pat his plane.
26:53:00 I asked them what happened.
26:55:00 They answered that he shot an American down
26:58:00 and was thanking his plane”. Not far from the Yalu River
27:02:00 mouth on a little island seized by the South Korean army
27:06:00 an American radio location stations
27:08:00 and guidance control center were situated.
27:11:00 The Chinese bombers TU-2 bombed the islands
27:16:00 but the stations were still working.
27:19:00 On November 30, 1951 twelve TU-2 bombers
27:24:00 of the Chinese air force repeated their attack at the island.
27:28:00 They were covered by LA-9 fighters and MIG-15s.
27:33:00 On approaching the islands the planes were attacked
27:36:00 by over thirty Sabres, In the course of the battle
27:39:00 the Americans inflicted great losses on the Chinese pilots.
27:43:00 However they lost two Sabres. The Chinese bombers
27:48:00 managed to get to the island, drop the bombs
27:51:00 and damage the radar stations.
28:04:00 Political claims of MacArthur,
28:07:00 his demands to wage the war until the victorious end
28:09:00 were irritating Washington more and more.
28:12:00 The dissatisfaction with him accumulated.
28:15:00 On April 11, 1951 Garry Truman announced the general’s resignation.
28:23:00 “With deep regret
28:24:00 I came to a conclusion that Army General Douglas MacArthur
28:28:00 is not able to fully support the policy
28:31:00 of the American government and UNO on issues
28:34:00 that are within his official responsibilities.
28:37:00 Therefore I’m withdrawing General MacArthur
28:40:00 from the command and appoint General Lieutenant
28:43:00 Matthew Ridgway as his successor”.
28:46:00 MacArthur got to know about his resignation from the radio news.
28:50:00 The countries of Western Europe heaved a sigh of relief.
28:54:00 The White House finally
28:55:00 did away with the general who liked waving the nuclear butt.
28:59:00 However reaction in the States was opposite.
29:02:00 Millions of people regarded MacArthur to be a national hero,
29:05:00 American Napoleon and the main enemy of the Communists.
29:09:00 Truman and his followers were heavily criticized.
29:14:00 As the Americans wrote, the popularity of the US President
29:18:00 at that time was no bigger than the end of a donkey’s tail.
29:22:00 Stalin was also relieved when Douglas MacArthur resigned.
29:27:00 Truman showed that he didn’t have the intention
29:30:00 of bringing hostilities on the territory of China and using the nuclear weapons.
29:35:00 The Americans expected
29:37:00 the Soviet side to do the same - to limit the zone
29:40:00 of the military conflict with Korea and to refuse to use the nuclear bomb.
29:45:00 The Korean War took a different character and aims.
29:50:00 MacArthur’s resignation inspired Kim Il-sung and Mao Zedong.
29:54:00 On April 22, 1951
29:57:00 the Chinese and North Korean troops started the offensive again.
30:04:00 Michael Chobuoka: “In the evening of April 24
30:08:00 the Chinese went into offensive. There were about 500 of them.
30:12:00 Machine gunners of Lieutenant Grey opened fire.
30:15:00 Eight large-caliber machine guns fixed to half-track vehicles
30:18:00 started to fire at the enemy. It was a massacre.
30:23:00 On the 25th or 26th when we were almost out of ammunition,
30:27:00 supplies and water the Chinese stopped their attacks”.
30:32:00 The Chinese managed to press on the enemy a bit.
30:35:00 But aviation and tanks of the UNO made them turn to defense very soon.
30:41:00 The Americans and the South Koreans were advancing along the entire front.
30:45:00 Having passed the 38th parallel they rushed
30:48:00 for important junctions of the Communists’ communications
30:50:00 in a triangle Chorwon-Pyonggang-Kumwha.
30:54:00 The so called Battle for the Iron Triangle started.
30:58:00 The battles didn’t stop at the MIG Alley too.
31:01:00 On May 20, 1951 Senior Lieutenant Shebanov became an ace of dogfights.
31:09:00 He had already shot down 4 Sabres and one bomber.
31:15:00 The pair of Senior Lieutenant Alfeyev
31:17:00 and Shebanov flew into the tail of a pair of F-86s.
31:22:00 But the MIGs were attacked by the enemy fighters.
31:28:00 Shebanov repelled the attack by firing at the fighters
31:31:00 trice from the 200-m distance. The enemy plane caught fire,
31:37:00 descended and disappeared from the battle zone.
31:40:00 It was counted as shot down. Shebanov became the first
31:46:00 Soviet ace of the jet era. That very day Captain of the US
31:52:00 Air Force James Jabara achieved his sixth victory
31:55:00 by shooting two MIGs down. He was awarded the second
31:59:00 most important award in America — the Distinguished Flying Cross.
32:03:00 The American mass media made Jabara a national hero.
32:08:00 He was given a vacation to tour the country
32:10:00 and to raise the prestige of a highly unpopular war
32:14:00 in the eyes of the public. A little family shop
32:17:00 of Jabara’s family in the Murdock Street in the town
32:21:00 of Wichita became a Mecca for the Americans.
32:23:00 Captain and his father became TV stars.
32:28:00 In January of 1953 Major Jabara returned to Korea
32:33:00 and shot down another 9 MIGs achieving 15 victories in total.
32:39:00 Both sides were suffering losses.
32:41:00 Both American and the Soviet engineers dreamed of looking
32:45:00 at the enemy’s plane closely — the closer the better.
33:10:00 It has landed. Call for the helicopters.
33:15:00 Roger. They are in the air.
33:36:00 The Koreans are trying to disguise the plane!
33:39:00 I think the Russian know about it already.
33:41:00 I see. Destroy the plane at any cost! They shouldn’t get it!
33:46:00 The Soviet scientists and aviation officials
33:49:00 were extremely interested in the Sabre.
33:52:00 They had to study it… if only to find ways to fight it.
34:01:00 But it wasn’t easy to get that trophy.
34:08:00 The pilots of the Sabres knew that the Soviet pilots
34:11:00 never pass the shoreline. If their planes were damaged
34:14:00 they flew towards the Korean bay where they would leave the plane.
34:19:00 An efficient rescue service used to send a helicopter
34:23:00 from the ships of the US fleet to take the pilot aboard.
34:26:00 The planes shot down on the territory of China
34:29:00 were turned into a mess of remains.
34:32:00 At the end of April in accordance with the decree
34:34:00 of the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force
34:37:00 a group from the Air Force scientific and research institute arrived in China.
34:41:00 Their task was to make the Sabre land on a Chinese airfield.
34:46:00 General Blagoveshenskiy headed a unit of 12 pilots.
34:51:00 They had been training for about a month practicing aerial battles.
34:55:00 At the end of May the group moved
34:57:00 to Andun airfield where Kozhedub’s regiments was stationed.
35:02:00 On May 31 the group of Lieutenant Colonel Dzyubenko
35:06:00 took flight for the first time.
35:08:00 They found a B-29 under the cover of the Sabres and attacked them.
35:13:00 In a result two MIGs were damaged and one was shot down.
35:18:00 Major Perevoznikov failed to fasten parachute straps before the take-off.
35:22:00 He fell out of the suspension system when ejecting and died.
35:28:00 After that battle the pilots
35:30:00 started calling Blagoveshenskiy’s unit “The Pooh Group”.
35:33:00 They hinted on the fact that it was easily defeated by the enemy.
35:38:00 Soon Lieutenant Colonel Dzyubenko died when landing.
35:42:00 On June 5 the group was reformed.
35:45:00 The pilots became members of the 196th and 176th regiments.
35:53:00 Battles for the Iron Triangle - Chorwon-Pyonggang-Kumwha –
35:57:00 were going with alternate success. From June 16 to 18
36:02:00 the town of Pyongang passed hands twice.
36:06:00 The American troops were hastily retreating to the south.
36:09:00 By the end of June 22 the Chinese volunteers seized
36:13:00 their former positions to the north of Chorwon and Kumwha.
36:18:00 The American commandment started the offense
36:21:00 with the First South Korean infantry division.
36:24:00 However their forces were defeated and those who survived
36:28:00 ran away to the left bank of the Imjingan River.
36:32:00 General Van Fleet remembered:
36:35:00 “Our soldiers were cursing the Koreans everywhere —
36:38:00 at the front line, in the head-quarters and in the rear.
36:42:00 At the first sign of danger they ran away
36:45:00 imperiling our army with total destruction.
36:48:00 They weren’t worth dying for them in five thousand miles
36:52:00 from home and trying to help them in vain”.
36:56:00 Instability of the South Korean army and great losses
36:58:00 of the UNO troops played a negative part in perception
37:01:00 of the war not only by the USA’s allies but also in the public eyes.
37:09:00 The number of people who believed that the regime of Syngman Rhee
37:12:00 and his troops was capable of nothing more
37:15:00 than committing atrocities to the civilians
37:17:00 and running away from the battle stage was growing.
37:19:00 And that regime insisted on waging the war to the victorious end!
37:24:00 At the front the troops
37:27:00 of both parties were tired and wanted a break.
37:33:00 On June 23, 1951 at the meeting of the UNO Assembly
37:37:00 the Soviet Union appealed to cease fire in Korea
37:41:00 and urged to mutually withdraw the troops from the 38th parallel.
37:47:00 In a few days the US government agreed to hold negotiations.
37:51:00 General Ridgway was cautious about that situation.
37:56:00 He informed the central commandment about his doubts and got a reply:
38:02:00 “We shouldn’t weaken hostilities from our part
38:05:00 until the conditions of cease-fire are agreed
38:10:00 and included into the peace agreement”.
38:13:00 The negotiations started in Kaesong on June 10.
38:17:00 The agenda included three main issues:
38:20:00 establishment of the truce line, exchange
38:22:00 of prisoners-of-war and the system of guarantees
38:25:00 of truce compliance. Both delegations insisted
38:29:00 on their variant of peace treaty.
38:31:00 The negotiations were accompanied with constant provocations from both parties.
38:36:00 Thus on August 10 the delegations
38:39:00 sat in silence for two hours and 11 minutes
38:42:00 without taking their eyes off one another.
38:45:00 On August 23 the negotiations were interrupted.
38:50:00 Together with the negotiations the American party invoked their military activities.
38:56:00 It was the start of a period
38:58:00 that many historians called “The Battle of Outposts”.
39:02:00 Long and bloody battles were waged for this or that height.
39:07:00 From August to October the Americans suffered
39:10:00 what they considered to be great losses and only captured a few hills.
39:18:00 On October 6 ten MIGs
39:21:00 headed by Colonel Yevgeniy Pepelyaev flew out
39:25:00 to intercept the enemy planes.
39:30:00 Yevgeniy Pepelyaev: “I mastered this trick before the war.
39:36:00 I first turn the plane to one side, then turn it
39:39:00 to the other side and follow the enemy.
39:43:00 When he has finished his turn, I’m already sitting on his tail.
39:48:00 I did it that time too. The Sabres separated and flew to the right and up.
39:53:00 I flew a bit further
39:55:00 to the horizon and started to turn into them.
39:58:00 Then I turned from right to left and appeared
40:01:00 a bit higher and righter than the supporting Sabre.
40:05:00 He was about 100 meters ahead of me.
40:10:00 The gun sight is above the Sabre all the time,
40:14:00 plus the negative overload is pulling me out of the cabin.
40:18:00 Then I turned upside down to make the overload
40:22:00 press me into the seat. He did the same,
40:24:00 but I was already aiming at his flare”.
40:29:00 Damn it! The seat is damaged! The seat is damaged!
40:36:00 Follow me to the sea. Land on the shore.
40:48:00 Attention! “Red Lead’ is calling the tower. The shore!
41:23:00 Oh, my God!
41:34:00 I’ve landed.
41:36:00 October 6, 1951. The commanding center of the 324th fighters’ division
41:39:00 So?
41:41:00 Commander, the Sabre has just made an emergency landing in the tide zone.
41:52:00 Send the car and the technicians there. Be quick!
41:57:00 They should gather everything up to the last screw!
42:01:00 Aye-aye!
42:27:00 We can’t destroy the airplane. It’s underwater.
42:32:00 Lieutenant?
42:36:00 Where is it, do you say?
42:38:00 There. You’ll see all of it when the tide is low.
42:42:00 Draw the people up!
42:44:00 Draw up! Why are you so slow? Be quick! Move it!
42:52:00 I hope we’ll do it in time.
42:56:00 Nicolay Chepelyov recalls: “The Sabre landed on its belly
43:00:00 into the sea in about one km from the dam.
43:02:00 The plane was visible when the tide was low and disappeared when it was high”.
43:11:00 It looks like the Russians have found the Sabre.
43:15:00 Destroy everything on the shore!
43:22:00 Load up! Hurry up! Don’t be like sleepy flies!
43:58:00 The American is following us!
44:04:00 Medvedev, go to the tunnel, faster! Be quick! Move it!
44:39:00 Lieutenant, you were born with a silver spoon in your mouth!
44:42:00 You should have gone faster!
44:53:00 Yevgeniy Pepelyaev recalls:
44:55:00 “When the Sabre was brought to the airfield
44:57:00 the commandment wanted to send it to Moscow at once.
45:00:00 But I talked the corps commander into leaving the Sabre
45:03:00 with us for some time. It had great view.
45:07:00 Nothing hindered it. There was an aiming gun head
45:10:00 in the MIG’s cabin. We used to hit our faces on it
45:13:00 when landing in emergencies. There was some bloc
45:17:00 instead of that in the Sabre that highlighted
45:19:00 the grid right at the armored glass”.
45:21:00 Soon the plane was sent to Moscow.
45:24:00 Nicolay Chepelev: "We managed to steal a plane
45:28:00 from under the Americans’ noses in such hard circumstances
45:30:00 and the Moscow said: “Why didn’t you wash it well?
45:34:00 It’s so dirty!”
45:38:00 On August 23 the negotiations in Kaesong were interrupted.
45:42:00 The American aviation started massive bombardments
45:45:00 of communications of the north-western Korea.
45:48:00 The American bombers never flew into the MiGs’ zone of action.
45:52:00 The Superfortresses concentrated on targets between the river
45:56:00 Chhonchongan and Pyongyang. The commandment
45:59:00 of the joint Chinese-North Korean army
46:04:00 was faced with an issue of restoring destroyed airfields
46:07:00 on the territory of North Korea.
46:10:00 Redeployment to new airfields would allow the MIGs
46:15:00 to cover practically all the territory of North Korea.
46:19:00 But the American bombers were repeatedly destroying
46:23:00 the take-off and landing stripes that were almost ready to receive aircrafts.
46:27:00 October was a month of intense dogfights.
46:33:00 On October 22 Thechhon was bombed.
46:37:00 To fulfill that task 12 bombers flew there
46:41:00 under the cover of over 50 Superfortresses.
46:45:00 54 MIGs flew out towards them followed by aircrafts of another two regiments.
46:51:00 In total over 200 planes participated in that huge aerial battle.
46:57:00 But the bombardment of the airfield itself didn’t happen.
47:01:00 The Soviet pilots shot 15 planes down.
47:04:00 That’s how the “Black Week” started for the American air defense.
47:09:00 The next day, on October 23 the commandment
47:12:00 of the 64th fighters’ corps sent three regiments into the air at alert.
47:19:00 Twelve bombers were intercepted when withdrawing from the target.
47:23:00 The dogfight with participation of over 100 aircrafts
47:26:00 lasted for just a bit more than ten minutes.
47:29:00 Three American planes were shot down; seven were written off after landing.
47:33:00 At the end of the battle Senior Lieutenant Khurtin
47:37:00 from the 523rd Fighter’s Aviation Regiment
47:40:00 was shot down and died. In a few days the Soviet pilots
47:43:00 met the B-29s bombers for the last time.
47:47:00 On October 28 the American commandment
47:50:00 decided to avoid day flights of B-29s to the north of Pyongyang.
47:57:00 Successful actions of the Soviet pilots
47:59:00 proved that the bombardment of the Soviet territory
48:03:00 with nuclear bombs from B-29s was literally impossible —
48:08:00 the aircrafts would be intercepted and shot down.
48:12:00 By order dater October 10, 1951 eight pilots —
48:17:00 aces of the 64th corps — were awarded the titles
48:22:00 of the Heroes of the Soviet Union.
48:24:00 The commander of the 176th guard’s regiment
48:27:00 Ivan Kozhedub congratulated Sergey Kramarenko,
48:32:00 Grigoriy Ges and Serafim Subbotin with the high award.
48:35:00 The title of the Hero of the Soviet Union was also awarded
48:37:00 to one more pilot of the regiment —
48:39:00 Boris Alexandrovitch Obraztsov — postmortem.
48:43:00 On July 11, 1951 during the battle mission
48:48:00 the Guard’s Senior Lieutenant Obraztsov shot down
48:52:00 his fifth enemy plane in a group dogfight.
48:54:00 Being severely wounded he managed to land a damaged plane.
48:58:00 He died on his way to the hospital from blood loss.
49:02:00 It was the second year of a hard and unrelenting war.
49:06:00 Losing their colleagues the Soviet pilots continued to protect the Korean skies.
49:22:00 Created by Anton Drabkin and Vladimir Krupkin, Directed by Pavel Tupik
49:24:00 Director of Photography – Sergey Klepitsa, Music by Boris Kukoba
49:26:00 Hosts Anatoliy Bogush and Yevgeniy Sinchukov
49:30:00 Produced by Valeriy Babitch, Vlad Ryashin, Sergey Titinkov and Konstantin Ernst
0:02 December 1951, Moscow
0:13 – Hello. – Hello.
0:14 Hello.
0:15 Hello! Hello! These are the newspapers for you.
0:19 Thank you!
0:20 Thanks!
0:25 Masha…
0:26 Masha, take a sweet.
0:29 What shall you say to the postman?
0:31 Thank you.
0:31 Thank you very much. Good bye.
0:33 Good bye.
0:34 Let’s go!
0:35 Come on.
0:36 Come on, come on.
0:38 All right.
1:03 You’re well-dressed now. Let’s make a deal —
1:07 don’t leave the yard.
1:08 All right.
1:09 Give me your hand. Come on.
1:11 Yes.
1:11 Let’s go.
1:13 Come on.
1:15 Right…
1:47 At the end of 1951 a bell rang in the Pepelyaevs apartment.
2:10 Maya Konstantinovna froze out of fear.
2:13 It wasn’t her husband’s handwriting on an envelope.
2:15 The address was printed. She instantly remembered
2:19 how the “killed in battle” notices used to look.
2:56 There was no sender’s address.
2:58 Mum?
2:59 Even the relatives of the Soviet pilots didn’t know
3:01 about their participation in the Korean War.
3:05 Mum, look!
3:09 In that letter the Guard’s Colonel Kozhedub
3:12 was congratulating Maya Konstatinovna
3:14 on his husband’s promotion to a rank of a colonel.
3:55 THE KOREAN WAR IN KOREA
4:01 December, 1951. The town of Zhukovskiy. The Flight Research Institute.
4:03 This block is responsible for the work of this unit here…
4:05 In the Flight Research Institute named after Gromov
4:08 the designers continued to study the captured American Sabre fighter.
4:13 The pressure suit is an individual suit of a pilot
4:16 that provides for his survival under conditions of overloads
4:20 and loss of pressure in the cabin at heights of over 12,000 meters.
4:26 Pneumatic chambers sewn into the dense materialwere positioned along the torso
4:32 and limbs in a way to create even pressure on the entire body.
4:35 When making steep turns the pilot experiences huge overloads.
4:39 As the blood pressure in the upper part
4:41 of his body drops, the blood rushes from his head
4:44 that may lead to loss of consciousness.
4:47 Sergey Kramarenko: “In order not to lose consciousness
4:51 because of overloading I had to lean forward
4:53 and try to squeeze the arteries in my belly
4:55 with my belly muscles thus preventing blood from going down.’
4:58 Shall an overload occur air automatically fills
5:02 the pneumo-chambers of the pressure suit.
5:06 They spread and hug the body preventing
5:09 the movement of blood to the blood vessels of the lower parts of the body.
5:15 It was not the first time that the Soviet experts
5:17 got their hands on such pressure suits.
5:19 All the captured American fighter pilots had them on.
5:23 But to comprehend the mechanism of work of the entire system
5:26 they needed an untouched aircraft with a pressure suit’s supply unit.
5:30 The Sabre brought down by Yevgeniy Pepelyaev
5:32 was thoroughly examined.
5:34 But much time passed before the Soviet industry
5:36 started producing pressure suits on its own.
5:42 In August of 1951 the Western press informed
5:46 that the remains of the brought down MIG
5:49 were lifted from the shallows of the Yellow Sea.
5:52 Minister of Defense Vasilevskiy had to explain that personally to Stalin.
5:57 In the course of an internal investigation
5:59 it became clear that the fighter found by the Americans
6:02 was flown by Senior Lieutenant Larionov,
6:04 deputy squadron commander on political issues of the 196th regiment.
6:09 In the course of a dogfight he got separated from the leader
6:12 Yevgeniy Pepelyaev, was shot down and died.
6:16 In summer of the same year
6:18 the Americans managed to capture parts of fuselage
6:21 of another MIG shot down in the mountains of North Korea.
6:25 Captain Pavlovskiy was flying it.
6:28 The plane was hit in an aerial battle;
6:31 its cabin got depressurized and it started losing its height rapidly.
6:35 Pavlovskiy tried to turn the MIG towards the airfield,
6:39 but was fired at by the Sabres that were hovering over him.
6:43 All his attempts to escape were provoking the fighters’ fire.
6:47 The pilot realized that the enemy wanted to capture his MIG.
6:50 Choosing the right moment Pavlovskiy ejected.
6:54 He was fortunate to land on the North Korean territory.
6:57 The plane fell on one of the summits.
7:00 Such broken down planes couldn’t give
7:02 the American design engineers the idea of all peculiarities
7:06 of construction of the incredibly durable MIG.
7:10 The Americans managed to capture an intact aircraft
7:13 only after the end of the Korean War, in September of 1953.
7:18 A North Korean pilot No Gim Sok used it to escape
7:22 from the PRC to the Republic of Korea.
7:29 At the end of 1951 the situation in Korea’s skies
7:34 became even more complicated.
7:36 This is right. I talked to the bosses. I told them
7:39 that that the flights tire us out very much, but they…
7:41 – They don’t believe us. – Right, they don’t.
7:45 Dmitry Samoylov, hero of the Soviet Union:
7:49 “The commandment of the division and the corps
7:51 was accusing the flying personnel of lack of diligence in battles.
7:55 The quantity of the shot down enemy planes dropped.
7:58 The Sabres were different now. It became harder
8:01 to catch up with them on a vertical and to escape them.
8:04 We were justifying ourselves, but the commandment didn’t believe us.
8:08 Then one of the shot down American pilots revealed
8:11 at the interrogation that they got new F-86E”.
8:17 The Sabre of this type had greater flight range,
8:22 better control at great heights and speeds close to the speed of sound.
8:28 Besides a new aviation group of Sabres was sent to Korea.
8:32 Therefore the number of these fighters in Korea exceeded 150 planes.
8:38 In February of 1952
8:41 Kozhedub’s division only had 12-16 capable crews.
8:47 Emotional and physical burdens of eight-month battles
8:51 wore out the crews of the 64th aviation corps.
8:55 It’s much more difficult to fly the jet fighters.
8:58 One needs better physical training.
9:01 It can’t be compared with flights on destroyers of the Great Patriotic War.
9:05 During the war with Germany
9:07 a fighter pilot would fly out about five times a day,
9:10 comparing to three in Korea. But faster speeds, overloads,
9:14 breathing oxygen were exhausting the pilots immensely.
9:18 The pilots were sent to a resort at the Soviet military base
9:21 in China, in the city of Dalniy, for twenty days.
9:26 Pilot Dmitry Samoylov: “That rest was of little use.
9:31 Maybe it was rest from physical training but not from moral overload.”
9:35 Pilot of the 176th Guard’s regiment Boris Abakumov recalls:
9:39 “After the third battle mission the pilots were tired.
9:43 They were losing the wish to fly.
9:44 They were becoming indifferent to the outcomes of the battle mission’.
9:48 Kozhedub understood that tiredness
9:50 and only rarely gave orders for a fourth take-off a day.
9:53 Many pilots were sent back to the Soviet Union
9:56 with nervous exhaustion.
9:59 The rest was getting glucose intravenously.
10:02 Some were getting alternative injections of strychnine
10:05 and arsenic solutions. Small doses of these poisons
10:08 are known to stimulate the nervous system.
10:11 The take-off was ordered! Go back, go back!
10:17 The tiredness from the battle missions came in many forms.
10:21 Sometimes a pilot would refuse to fly out
10:23 and would regularly return to the airfield
10:25 complaining of problems with the engines or failures of other equipment.
10:28 Or he would catch a cold all the time.
10:31 Some, on the contrary, were prone to thinking:
10:33 “No one can shoot me down. I’m invincible”.
10:37 Second, the take-off has been ordered!
10:41 Second! Do you hear me? The take-off!
10:45 On January 17, 1952 in the course of a battle
10:49 the Hero of the Soviet Union Sergey Kramarenko was shot down.
10:55 The Third is ready to take off.
10:58 The Fourth is ready to take off.
10:59 The Fifth is ready to take off.
11:02 The eight MIGs were led by the commander
11:04 of the 176th guard’s regiment Colonel Vishnyakov.
11:08 It had to counter-attack attack planes Thunderjets.
11:13 The Second is ready to take off.
11:17 The leader noticed a group of the enemy planes
11:19 at about 4,000 meters and tried attacking it.
11:28 On noticing the pursuit the attack planes hid in the clouds.
11:32 The MIGs turned home. It was precisely when they got
11:36 under the fire of the Sabres covering the Thunderjets.
11:41 The American pilots were using a clock system
11:44 to pass information about the location of the enemy in the air.
11:48 The direction was described as a position of a clock hand.
11:52 For example: “Leader of the Blue, the enemy is at ten o’clock”.
11:57 The Soviet pilots marked the direction - right or left
12:01 and higher or lower – in degrees. For example:
12:03 “The enemy is ahead to the left – fourth lower twenty”.
12:07 Sergey Kramarenko accepted battle in unfavorable circumstances.
12:11 Attention! Everybody, turn!
12:14 The MIGs maneuvered and reached the height of 9,000 meters.
12:18 Another group of the Sabres followed them.
12:22 The MIGs turned at the attacking Sabres.
12:25 The enemy fighters escaped.
12:28 The MIGs repeated the maneuver, gained height again and resumed the attack.
12:39 No sooner had the pilot watched the enemy plane go down that he felt a hit.
12:47 The overload pressed Kramarenko to the left side of the plane.
12:51 This is the Second. I was hit.
12:57 It took him great efforts to reach for the catapult handle.
13:15 Unexpectedly a Sabre rushed at the paratrooper.
13:19 The machine gun bullets were so close
13:22 that the pilot instinctively tucked his legs up.
13:25 It’s considered to be a shame in aviation
13:27 to shoot at a pilot who jumped from the plane.
13:30 The pilots tried to avoid doing that even in battles with the Germans.
13:33 But not everyone in aviation is a knight.
13:37 Kramarenko survived because he entered a cloud.
13:39 The American fighter failed to find him for the second round of fire.
13:55 Soon Kramarenko walked out into a road and saw a donkey cart.
14:02 A peasant was sitting on it.
14:14 Kim Il-sung – ho!
14:18 Kim Il-sung – ho!
14:25 Sergey Kramarenko managed to get to a village on a cart.
14:30 Soon a search party with a car came to get him back.
14:38 It was hard for the Soviet pilots
14:40 shot down above the Korean’s territory at the beginning of war.
14:44 Their participation in the war was kept secret by the Soviet Union.
14:48 Neither Chinese nor the Koreans knew about the Soviet pilots.
14:51 For the locals any European was a “Truman”.
14:54 There were cases that the shot down Soviet pilots were beaten up
14:58 by the peasants or fired at by their own North Korean allies.
15:03 On June 1, 1951 the Guard’s Senior Lieutenant Yevgeniy Stelmakh
15:09 destroyed two bombers B-29 in an aerial battle but was shot down.
15:14 He managed to eject from the plane.
15:16 On seeing people in unknown uniform he tried to escape.
15:21 All the Soviet pilots in Korea were ordered against being taken prisoners
15:25 for prevention of an international scandal.
15:28 Stelmakh was shooting until the last bullet.
15:30 Then he shot himself to avoid being captured.
15:34 By order dated October 10, 1951 Yevgeniy Stelmakh
15:36 was awarded the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union — postmortem.
15:43 After that event many pilots bought signs
15:46 depicting Kim Il-sung and Mao Zedong and fastened them to their jackets.
15:53 The flight of February 2, 1952 was the last in Korea for Captain Kramarenko.
16:03 At the railway by the Andun airfield a passenger train was waiting.
16:08 The pilots of the 324th division of Kozhedub were going home.
16:13 Each of them had one big suitcase, and some even had two.
16:23 Dmitry Samoylov: "In a business trip we were paid in Yuan’s.
16:27 We were paid very well.
16:29 One could buy a sweater for a monthly pay, a couple of suits.
16:32 I bought a fur coat for my wife.
16:34 They promised to pay us for the flights and for shot down planes.
16:36 I made 161 battle flights and shot down ten planes.
16:41 According to my calculations I as to get 31 thousand rubles. It was very good money.
16:46 In 1952 a car "Pobeda" used to cost 20 thousand.
16:52 But this order only came into effect in January of 1952,
16:56 so we didn’t get this money".
17:01 Technicians of the 176th and the 196th regiments
17:04 and pilots of the 90th division of anti-aircraft defense came to see them off.
17:10 Good bye!
17:12 Buy!
17:14 They were staying to fight the Sabres further.
17:23 Come to visit us!
17:27 Good bye!
17:29 According to the official data, in the course of ten months of battles
17:33 pilots of Kozhedub’s division shot down 216 planes,
17:37 losing 25 planes and 10 pilots.
17:43 It should be mentioned that during the division’s stay in Korea
17:46 the photo-gun video and oral confirmation of the participants
17:50 of the battle was enough to prove
17:53 that the pilot shot a plane down.
17:56 However it happened that some planes that were marked
17:59 as shot down did land at their airfields.
18:02 Therefore many historians assume that the quantity
18:05 of the shot down plane is overstated for about one third.
18:10 Later the commandment started sending search parties
18:13 to the place where plane fell.
18:16 Only if the search party found the remains of the plane was it taken
18:19 into the pilot's account. The most important achievement
18:22 of the battle work of the 64th fighters’ aviation corps
18:27 was conquest of airspace above the southern bank of the Yalu River.
18:33 There the Soviet pilots established the so called “MIG Alley”.
18:41 Come in, please. Put it here.
18:48 At the beginning of 1952 a courier
18:52 brought a heavy suitcase to the Kozhedubs' apartment.
19:18 This is it. Here you go.
19:24 Thank you very much. Please take this.
19:26 This is unnecessary.
19:28 Good bye.
19:53 When his wife Veronica Nicolayevna opened it
19:56 she failed to find any china, the pieces of silk or expansive statuettes.
20:05 Between the clothes, pieces of fabric and a chessboard
20:09 was a two-pound dumbbell of Ivan Nikitovitch.
20:17 The trice Hero of the Soviet Union was a very bad provider.
20:23 At the end of 1951
20:26 the ministers for foreign affairs of the USA, Great Britain
20:29 and France came to a conclusion that the Syngman Rhee’s regime didn’t deserve
20:34 support because of its weakness and corruption.
20:38 However there was no alternative figure.
20:41 At the presidential elections in the Republic of Korea
20:44 Syngman Rhee won again gaining 72 per cent of votes.
20:49 The 77-year president was trying to impose his political course on America.
20:55 That course excluded armistice in the war.
20:58 Besides he believed that the change of the US administration
21:01 and coming of the Republicans to power would strengthen
21:04 the positions of people in favor of continuing the war.
21:07 The Americans were choosing a new President too.
21:11 Less than 30 per cent of the voters supported Truman.
21:15 Dwight Eisenhower who was actively against
21:18 the Korean War became the President.
21:22 Dwight David Eisenhower was an army general
21:26 who headed the allies’ landing party on the D-Day in 1944.
21:32 He was the cavalier of the Soviet medal “Victory”.
21:34 After the war he used to maintain friendly relations with Marshal Zhukov.
21:39 When he became a Presided he arranged two high-level meetings
21:43 between the Soviets and the Americans remaining the supporter of the Cold War.
21:47 His doctrine of the “mass retribution” stipulated
21:50 the increase of strategic aviation with nuclear arms
21:54 on board to attack the USSR and China.
21:58 Eisenhower promised to put an end to the war.
22:02 His claim “I’ll go to Korea myself” brought him many voters’ voices.
22:07 On December 2 he left for Korea.
22:10 General Ridgway was appointed
22:12 the Head Commander of the NATO troops in Europe.
22:16 General Mark Clark replaced him in Korea.
22:21 Clark believed that the Communists only recognize force
22:24 and that Americans should be strict in communications with them.
22:28 He fashioned out plans of a series of land operations
22:31 in McArthur’s style including the use of nuclear weapons.
22:35 The Pentagon addressed General Ridgway
22:38 with a request to share his opinion on losses
22:42 in case of an offensive and start of military actions on the territory of China.
22:46 General estimated that there would be
22:48 350-400 thousand perished and wounded in Korea
22:51 and a few times more in case of American invasion of China.
22:56 President now knew that it was impossible to win that war.
23:05 Alert! All crews take your battle positions!
23:09 Target One! Route 210. Height 6,500. Distance 45 km.
23:15 Together with fighter pilots the skies of Korea and China
23:19 were patrolled by the Soviet anti-aircraft gunners.
23:22 They were using RAP-150 radar stations against night bombardments.
23:30 RAP-150 was a Soviet copy of an English radar stations supplied to the USSR
23:35 on conditions of a land-lease since 1944.
23:39 The station was focusing the radio-beam narrowly enough to find targets in the air
23:44 at about 50 km distance.
23:47 On noticing a target a spotlight beam was turned on.
23:51 Two anti-aircraft regiments
23:53 were a part of the 64th air defense fighters’ corps.
23:57 Each regiment had 36 RAP-150 and the same number of spotlight stations.
24:05:00 The 351st night fighter regiment was armed with fighter planes LA-11.
24:12:00 The maximum speed of this plane was 674 km/h
24:17:00 while B-29 could accelerate at descend to 690 km/h.
24:24:00 A Soviet piston plane had no chances of catching up to the Super-Fortresses.
24:29:00 It opened fire from great distance.
24:33:00 He won’t be able to shot it down from so far away.
24:41:00 The commandment asked to send MIGs to their regiment.
24:44:00 Soon they got two new jets.
24:48:00 The pilots started studying the machines.
24:51:00 They had to study the equipment for blind landings,
24:54:00 automatic radio-compass, and radiometer of small heights.
24:59:00 For the first time ever these fighters had a system
25:02:00 of state recognition of “our” versus “enemy” aircrafts.
25:05:00 Thanks to it the targeting service could not only tell
25:08:00 our planes from the enemy ones but even tell the fighters among themselves.
25:18:00 The guns at LA-11 were positioned in the upper part of the fuselage
25:22:00 by the pilot’s cabin. After the first burst of fire
25:26:00 the flares from the shots would blind the pilot,
25:29:00 especially at night, and he would lose his target.
25:32:00 The guns of MIG-15 were positioned beneath the fuselage.
25:35:00 Therefore the flares from the shot didn’t prevent the pilot
25:38:00 from locking on his target.
25:39:00 On June 10, 1952
25:43:00 Captain of 147th guard’s regiment Lieutenant Colonel Studilin,
25:47:00 Captain Karelin and Senior Lieutenant Ihsangaliyev
25:50:00 flew out to intercept a group of bombers
25:53:00 that were to bomb a railway bridge by Kwaksan.
25:58:00 Soon the spotlights’ beams found a B-29.
26:02:00 Lieutenant Colonel Studilin attacked it.
26:05:00 From a short distance he managed to hit one engine
26:08:00 of the bomber, but then the plane flew out of the beam.
26:12:00 The pilots made two more attacks focusing on the flares.
26:16:00 The American plane that caught on fire flew towards the bay.
26:20:00 Another B-29 exploded in the air after Captain Karelin’s attack.
26:25:00 Its fragments hit his MIG
26:27:00 but Karelin continued his patrol and even managed
26:31:00 to set another Fortress on fire.
26:33:00 Ten out of eleven American planes were illuminated by the spotlights.
26:39:00 The Americans confirmed two shot down planes.
26:43:00 Another one made an emergency landing at Kimpho air base
26:46:00 and was written off.
26:49:00 Gunner of a B-29 of the 19th bombers’ group Bud Farrell recalled:
26:54:00 “Our crew came to the air base on June 21, 1952.
27:01:00 The mood was low after recent defeats.
27:04:00 The humor was moistly dark with jokes like
27:06:00 “We won’t need that any time soon…
27:09:00 We thought that the MIGs were flown
27:12:00 by ill-experienced North Koreans or the Chinese.
27:14:00 Then we got to know that it were the Russian pilots
27:16:00 who were in the MIGs by the Yalu.
27:19:00 We called them “honcho”, it means “the boss’ in Japanese.
27:22:00 They were experienced fighters hardened in the Second World War battles”.
27:27:00 Anatoliy Mikhaylovitch Karelin won six victories in Korea’s night sky.
27:33:00 By the decree of the Presidium of the Higher Council of the USSR
27:36:00 dated June 14, 1953 he was awarded a rank
27:40:00 of the Hero of the Soviet Union.
27:45:00 Despite losses the American commandment believed
27:48:00 that the negotiations with the Communists
27:50:00 should be carried on under constant military pressure.
27:54:00 In summer mass bombardments of the Korean territory were resumed.
27:58:00 On June 23, 1952 the Americans
28:02:00 carried out their largest-scale attack at a complex
28:06:00 of hydraulic works on the Amnokkan River.
28:09:00 Over 500 bombers participated. In result of that attack
28:15:00 almost all the North Korea and a part of the Northern China
28:18:00 were left without electricity for over two weeks.
28:23:00 On August 5, 1952 an attack on the command center
28:27:00 of Kim Il-sung and the house where Soviet experts lived was attacked.
28:32:00 Eleven Soviet military counsels died under the bombs.
28:37:00 The destruction inclicted by the bombardments
28:39:00 was so heavy that at the end of the war
28:42:00 the American military command officially stated
28:45:00 that there were no more objects for bombardment in North Korea.
28:51:00 A month before the end of the war on June 20, 1953 the US army attacked
28:59:00 the irrigation systems of Kusongan and Toxangan.
29:04:00 The bombardment destroyed the dams that led to a flood
29:06:00 of such force that even Pyongyang in 40 km from there was flooded.
29:12:00 The water supply system of the North Korean agriculture was destroyed.
29:17:00 Many villages were swept away by the flood.
29:20:00 The hunger that erupted in the country
29:23:00 was partially mitigated by huge deliveries of food
29:26:00 from the USSR and other countries of the Socialistic camp.
29:40:00 According to the corrected data over 36,000 Soviet military men
29:44:00 took part in the Korean War.
29:47:00 282 people died including 120 pilots.
29:52:00 Senior officers of ranks from major up were buried in the USSR,
29:57:00 in the town of Voroshilov-Ussuriysk.
30:00:00 The majority of soldiers and their commanders
30:02:00 were buried at the cemetery of the Soviet military base
30:05:00 in Port-Arthur by the graves of the fortress’s defenders of 1904-1905.
30:11:00 The funerals were very solemn.
30:13:00 At the relatives’ option a requiem service
30:15:00 according to the Orthodox ritual was performed.
30:17:00 In May of 1955 after the Soviet troops left Port-Arthur
30:22:00 the military base and the cemetery became a part of China’s territory.
30:27:00 In 2009 the Chinese authorities
30:29:00 gave the Russians their permission to visit the graves
30:33:00 of the Russian and Soviet soldiers in Port-Arthur.
30:37:00 In spring of 1952 the losses of the Soviet fighters in Korea increased.
30:43:00 The commandment of the army was very worried.
30:47:00 Two anti-aircraft divisions
30:49:00 that replaced the old ones consisted of novice pilots.
30:53:00 They were quick to get the grasp of the battle situation, though.
30:56:00 Together with Kozhedub’s fighters they were making 3 to 5 battle flights
30:59:00 to the zone of military actions a day.
31:02:00 However they never engaged in battles.
31:04:00 When the old crews left for the Motherland,
31:06:00 the new pilots had to gain experience from a scratch.
31:09:00 And they had to fight experienced American aces!
31:14:00 The Americans were renewing crews without letting the fighting pilots go.
31:19:00 A fighter pilot could leave his unit because of a wound or a trauma
31:23:00 after a hundred of battle missions.
31:27:00 On a personal request he could stay to carry out another 25 battle flights.
31:33:00 The novice pilots were covered by their more experienced colleagues
31:38:00 who knew the theatre of war and the battle tactics well.
31:41:00 After 50 battle missions a pilot was appointed
31:45:00 a leader of a pair or a commander of a unit and could replenish his group himself.
31:54:00 The fighter pilots who returned home could come back in six months.
32:02:00 An American ace James Jabara was in Korea twice.
32:06:00 He shot down 6 planes during his first term and 9 MIGs during his second term.
32:13:00 In June of 1952 the American pilots turned to a tactic
32:18:00 of blocking the airfields. They were trying
32:21:00 to shot the planes down at the moment of taking off or landing.
32:26:00 The Sabres! The Sabres! Hide!
32:32:00 The Americans! Hide! Cover!
32:36:00 Run for cover, guys! Be quick, be quick!
32:49:00 The everyday clothes of a pilot resembled those of a tractor driver.
32:54:00 In warm times a pilot would wear
32:55:00 a light leather jacket above a netting tank top,
32:58:00 blue cotton pants tucked into red-brown Chinese boots and a cap.
33:04:00 They were armed with a TT and a landing knife.
33:07:00 Each evening in a canteen a pilot would get a can of beer and 100 g of vodka.
33:14:00 Konstantin Ugryumov:
33:16:00 “If that’s not enough for you, ask for another 100 g.
33:20:00 The Chinese would ask: “Won’t we get reprimands?”
33:22:00 “No, you won’t.” After the dinner those who wanted
33:25:00 went to the club where one could see five movies:
33:28:00 “The Tractor Drivers”, “The Circus” and so on.
33:30:00 Sometimes the Chinese would stage a performance”.
33:34:00 The American pilots lived by their airfield too.
33:38:00 They had tents for 8 people each.
33:40:00 They also got beer each evening.
33:43:00 The question was how to cool it.
33:46:00 Richard Merian tells the story:
33:48:00 “First we used to dig out a hole, place the cans there
33:50:00 and spray them from carbon dioxide fire extinguisher.
33:53:00 But soon we used up all the fire extinguishers at the airfield.
33:56:00 The commandment threatened us with a tribunal
33:59:00 for not using them not in accordance with their purpose.
34:01:00 So we found another way out. We put cans with beer
34:05:00 in a shell box of a plane that needed a fly-around
34:07:00 after a service or the change of engine.
34:12:00 After a flight at a great height and quick landing
34:15:00 the beer for the pilots was as cool as it should be”.
34:19:00 The Soviet pilots won their last victories on July 20, 1953.
34:27:00 During the landing at the airfield the planes
34:29:00 of Captain Siskov and Senior Lieutenant Klimov by a pair of Sabres.
34:32:00 from the 224th fighters’ regiment were attacked
34:37:00 Vladimir Klimov recalls: “I heard a sound of the “panicker” –
34:41:00 that’s how we called the early warning radar system SPO-2 - “The Siren-2”.
34:46:00 Then I heard Siskov’s voice over the radio:
34:49:00 “Look behind you!’ I turned around and saw a couple of Sabres on my tail.
34:55:00 The Sabres fired too late, so they didn’t hit the tail of my plane.
34:59:00 Then the Sabres moved forward and I turned the plane and opened fire.
35:03:00 Siskov was shooting at a second plane.
35:06:00 We didn’t see the results for the fighters hid in the clouds.
35:11:00 They were found on a shore of a bay in 40 km from the airfield”.
35:18:00 In September of 1952 a new round of negotiations started
35:21:00 between the representatives of the USA and the Republic of Korea from one side
35:25:00 and the Korean People’s Democratic Republic and China from the other side.
35:33:00 The stumbling block was the issue of the prisoners-of-war.
35:36:00 The UNO demanded to give all the prisoners-of-war the right to return home
35:42:00 or not to return home. The Communists were against it.
35:46:00 Many people hoped that the visit of the US President
35:50:00 Dwight Eisenhower to Korea would speed the negotiations up,
35:53:00 as he wanted to stop the war. But it didn’t happen.
35:58:00 It seemed that the fate of the prisoners-of-war
36:01:00 was more important for the negotiating parties
36:03:00 than the fate of the soldiers who were dying
36:05:00 and being wounded at the front every single day.
36:09:00 On March 5, 1953 an event happened that accelerated the end of the war.
36:17:00 Stalin died in Moscow. Members of the Political Bureau
36:21:00 of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
36:24:00 who gathered in the Kremlin voted for the end of the Korean War
36:27:00 and for withdrawal of the Soviet troops from the Northern China.
36:33:00 Mao Zedong Il-sung lost the USSR’s support.
36:38:00 In his turn the leader of South Korea Syngman Rhee
36:41:00 started an active propaganda campaign to go on with the war.
36:46:00 In April of 1953 Syngman Rhee claimed:
36:50:00 “Our people will consider any settlement of the Korean War
36:54:00 that would render us separated as appeasement of the Communists”.
37:01:00 He called for the unification of Korea through a “victory on the Yalu River,
37:05:00 on our ancient Northern border”.
37:08:00 The State Secretary of the USA Walter Robertson
37:11:00 was sent to negotiate with Syngman Rhee.
37:14:00 He was straightforward: “America has a firm intention to go out of the war and will do
37:20:00 without a cease-fire agreement though it would be better to have it”.
37:26:00 To discourage Syngman Rhee
37:29:00 from going on with hostilities the Chinese commandment
37:32:00 planned a military operation called “The Decisive Battle”.
37:36:00 Its motto was “Kill the hen to scare the monkey”.
37:41:00 The Chinese concentrated four times more of their troops
37:44:00 at the defense line of the South Korean troops by the town of Kimson.
37:51:00 The southerners didn’t expect such a strong blow and started to retreat.
37:55:00 In the course of just three days the Chinese troops
37:58:00 advanced for 15-25 km capturing over 3,000 soldiers
38:04:00 and officers, 153 guns and 50 tanks.
38:08:00 The inability of the army of the Republic of Korea
38:11:00 to lead the war independently made Syngman Rhee claim
38:16:00 that he wouldn’t sign the cease-fore agreement
38:18:00 but won’t hinder its execution. A special building
38:24:00 in which the truce was to be signed was built in one night.
38:28:00 The head Commander of the UNO troops Mark Clark
38:31:00 demanded that each delegation had a separate entrance.
38:36:00 In future General used to remember sadly that
38:40:00 “he turned out to be the first American commander
38:43:00 in the history of the USA who signed a truce
38:46:00 without winning a victory”. On June 1953 a truce was signed.
38:55:00 The ceremony was quick and went in complete silence.
38:59:00 The agreement was signed by the head
39:02:00 of the Chinese delegation General Lieutenant Nam Il,
39:05:00 who graduated from the Tashkent Military Academy
39:09:00 and participated in battles for Stalingrad and Warsaw,
39:12:00 and the head of the UNO troops’ delegation William Harrison.
39:16:00 The South Korean General Chhve Doxin
39:21:00 who was present at the ceremony refused to sign the document.
39:24:00 The peace treaty was signed on 10 a.m.
39:28:00 but it came into effect only 12 hours later.
39:32:00 They say that it was how “575 meetings ended
39:36:00 during which 18 million words were said”.
39:40:00 The military conflict was formally finished.
39:44:00 The parties returned to the former positions.
39:47:00 A construction of a demilitarized zone started
39:50:00 on the border of two Korean states.
39:54:00 Each state turned their side into a strong defense line.
39:58:00 It took over 800,000 tons of cement, over 200,000 tons
40:05:00 of metal furnishings and 3,5 mln sq.m of sand and gravel
40:09:00 to build the wall along the border.
40:11:00 Its foundations were dug into the earth for 2 to 3 meters.
40:14:00 The wall is 5 m high, from 10 to 19 m wide
40:21:00 at the foundations and from 3 to 7 m wide at the top.
40:24:00 It was hard to solve the issue
40:27:00 of the sick and wounded prisoners-of-war
40:29:00 that were to be exchanged between the conflicting parties.
40:32:00 By June of 1953 a Neutral Repatriation Commission
40:37:00 was established. Those prisoners-of-war
40:41:00 who wanted to return home could do that
40:44:00 in the course of 60 days. Those who refused to come back
40:47:00 were sent to the neutral zone
40:49:00 guarded by the Indian military for 90 days.
40:53:00 The Communist propaganda workers
40:57:00 used the opportunity to meet with potential non-returners.
41:01:00 The UNO troops released 78,035 North Koreans
41:06:00 and 20,339 Chinese, the government of the North Korea –
41:12:00 12,760 prisoners-of-war. 14,699 Chinese
41:18:00 and 7,876 North Koreans refused to return to their Motherlands.
41:24:00 They were joined by about 400 people
41:27:00 captured by the Communists. Among them were 21 Americans
41:31:00 and 1 Britain. With time most of them returned
41:35:00 to their countries. Data on military losses
41:40:00 in the Korean War differ dramatically as each side
41:43:00 overrates the enemy’s losses. The USA estimates its losses
41:48:00 as 36,574 people. The UNO troops lost 17,000 people.
41:57:00 The North Korean sources believe that the total losses
42:02:00 of the American troops and their allies
42:04:00 including people killed, wounded and captured
42:06:00 amounts to 1,567,128 people. In the course of three years
42:13:00 of war the southerners’ army lost over 400,000 people
42:16:00 and troops of North Korea lost over 520,000 people.
42:22:00 Official statistics of China talks about 390,000 killed.
42:28:00 Western and Eastern sources increases the losses
42:31:00 to up to a million. Modern Korean data say
42:35:00 that the war took no less than 6 mln lives in total
42:40:00 from both sides and their allies.
42:43:00 The scale of destruction brought to North Korea
42:46:00 by the American war machine was unprecedented.
42:50:00 The US air defense used to make
42:54:00 from 700 to 1,000 flights a day and up to 2,000 flights
42:58:00 on some days. Just during the first year of the war
43:01:00 over 15 mln bombs were dropped. Only 15 per cent
43:04:00 of the bombs fell on military targets.
43:07:00 The rest were villages, towns, industrial objects,
43:10:00 houses and schools. During the most massive bombardment
43:18:00 in Pyongyang over 10,000 residents died.
43:23:00 The city resembled Hiroshima by the end of the war.
43:26:00 The Soviet military men left the territory of China.
43:30:00 From November 1, 1950 to July 27, 1953
43:37:00 the pilots of the 64th fighters’ air corps carried out
43:40:00 64,300 flights and 1,872 aerial battles,
43:47:00 shot down 1097 enemy planes and lost 355 MIG-15s
43:53:00 and LA-11s. The American sourced increase the number
43:58:00 of the shot down MIGs by almost 1.5 times.
44:01:00 120 Soviet pilots died. The Soviet anti-aircraft gunners
44:07:00 shot down 212 planes and lost 64 people.
44:12:00 Yevgeniy Georgiyevitch Pepelyaev who won 23 victories
44:18:00 is the first among the Soviet aces.
44:20:00 He is followed by Nicolay Vasilyevitch Sutyagin
44:23:00 who shot down 21 or, according to some data, 22 planes,
44:27:00 and Dmitry Pavlovitch Oskin and Lev Kirillovitch Schukin
44:31:00 who shot down 15 planes each. In total 43 or,
44:37:00 according to other data, 53 Soviet pilots won 5
44:41:00 and more victories in the Korean sky.
44:43:00 The best American ace of the Korean War
44:46:00 was Josef MacConnell who shot down 16 planes.
44:50:00 40 American pilots shot down 5 and more planes.
44:56:00 The military actions in Korea ended.
44:58:00 July 27, 1953. China
45:00:00 But the Cold War was just gaining momentum.
45:04:00 On the day of signing the truce a Soviet cargo plane IL-12
45:09:00 left from Port-Arthur. It had 21 technicians on board,
45:15:00 some medical officers of the 83rd aviation corps plus the crew.
45:23:00 The plane flew to Vladivostok above the territory of China.
45:26:00 By the city of Girin four Sabres attacked the cargo plane
45:30:00 with Soviet identifying signs.
45:34:00 Ralf Parr was the leader of the four.
45:42:00 This is an excerpt from Ralf Parr’s report:
45:45:00 “Having made two approaches with an end
45:48:00 to identifying the aircraft I saw big red stars
45:52:00 on the IL-12. During the third approach I opened fire.
45:56:00 The plane caught fire, tumbled and fell to the hills”.
46:03:00 All people on board died.
46:12:00 In two days after that tragedy a pair of MIG-17s
46:19:00 intercepted and show down an American reconnaissance plane
46:22:00 B-50 by the Askold Island near Vladivostok,
46:25:00 in the USSR’s air space.
46:28:00 The confrontation between the USSR and the USA
46:31:00 on land and in the air continued.
46:33:00 Before them were wars in Vietnam, Africa,
46:36:00 Afghanistan and Iraq.
46:38:00 They were cautiously called “the local conflicts”.
46:43:00 Cities and villages were destroyed,
46:45:00 millions of people died, millions were rendered homeless.
46:49:00 The first of those “local conflicts”
46:52:00 has not been formally settled.
46:55:00 A wall has been standing on a 38th parallel
46:59:00 for more than half a century. One people, one history,
47:04:00 one fate are separated by concrete,
47:06:00 ideological irreconcilability and political ambitions.
48:20:00 The list of the Soviet pilots who died
48:22:00 in dogfights in Korea’s sky:
48:24:00 1.Captain M. Grachev 2.Captain M. Nasonov 3.Captain A. Tarshinov
48:25:00 4.Senior Lieutenant K. Rumyantsev. Missing. 5.Senior Lieutenant N. Serikov. Missing
48:26:00 6.Senior Lieutenant P. Pavlenko 7.Senior Lieutenant S. Barsegyan
48:27:00 8.Senior Lieutenant G. Grebyonkin 9.Captain V. Dubrovin 10.Senior Lieutenant U. Savinov
48:28:00 11.Senior Lieutenant P. Nikitchenko 12.Senior Lieutenant F. Slabkin
48:29:00 13.Senior Lieutenant Y. Stelmakh 14.Senior Lieutenant V. Negodyayev
48:30:00 15.Senior Lieutenant N. Ageyev 16.Senior Lieutenant E. Agranovitch
48:31:00 17.Senior Lieutenant B. Obukhov 18.Senior Lieutenant I. Larionov. Missing
48:32:00 19.Senior Lieutenant B. Obraztsov 20.Senior Lieutenant G. Svistun
48:33:00 21.Senior Lieutenant G. Kolpikov 22.Senior Lieutenant V. Okatov
48:34:00 23.Vaptain I. Morozov 24.Senior Lieutenant V. Khurtin 25.Senior Lieutenant F. Sabanov
48:35:00 26.Senior Lieutenant A. Shulyatyev 27.Senior Lieutenant V. Filimonov. Missing
48:36:00 28.Senior Lieutenant A. Travin 29.Captain G. Shatalov 30.Senior Lieutenant A. Rizhkov
48:37:00 31.Senior Lieutenant A. Baturin 32.Senior Lieutenant V. Stepanov
48:38:00 33.Senior Lieutenant B. Sapozhnikov 34.Senior Lieutenant A. Filipov
48:38:00 35.Senior Lieutenant I. Troitsiy 36.Senior Lieutenant A. Kozhevnikov
48:39:00 37.Senior Lieutenant V. Shershakov 38.Senior Lieutenant E. Savinov
48:40:00 39.Senior Lieutenant P. Derevyanko 40.Senior Lieutenant A. Ivanov
48:41:00 41.Senior Lieutenant N. Zenakov 42.Senior Lieutenant E. Filippov
48:42:00 43.Captain P. Lyubovinkin 44.Senior Lieutenant N. Chernikov
48:42:00 45.Senior Lieutenant A. Voronov 46.Senior Lieutenant V. Shabenko
48:43:00 47.Captain N. Naumov 48.Senior Lieutenant D. Selivanov
48:44:00 49.Senior Lieutenant S. Tolmatskiy 50.Senior Lieutenant M. Yefremov
48:45:00 51.Captain V. Kolmanson 52.Senior Lieutenant F. Krasulin 53.Senior Lieutenant Akmov
48:46:00 54.Captain I. Denisov 55.Senior Lieutenant V. Pozhidayev
48:47:00 56.Senior Lieutenant V. Shmagunov 57.Captain V. Gorobchenko
48:47:00 58.Captain A. Kostin 59.Senior Lieutenant L. Tsvetkov 60.Senior Lieutenant V. Krutskikh
48:48:00 61.Senior Lieutenant S. Yezev 62.Senior Lieutenant M. Kochetov
48:49:00 63.Major A. Shekhovtsov 64.Captain G. Poltavets 65.Captain F. Yeremchenko
48:50:00 66.Senior Lieutenant A. Titov 67.Senior Lieutenant M. Zatolokin
48:51:00 68.Senior Lieutenant I. Shikunov 69.Captain K. Pronin 70.Major I. Sova
48:51:00 71.Senior Lieutenant I. Kapunov 72.Captain V. Chernavin 73.Senior Lieutenant I. Yefimov
48:52:00 74.Senior Lieutenant I. Shinayev 75.Captain F. Bodnya 76.Senior Lieutenant A. Orlov
48:53:00 77.Senior Lieutenant I. Mescheryakov 78.Lieutenant B. Fedorov
48:54:00 79.Senior Lieutenant A. Svechkar 80.Lieutenant I. Postnikov
48:55:00 81.Senior Lieutenant N. Belyakov 82.Senior Lieutenant V. Pakhomkin
48:55:00 83.Senior Lieutenant A. Vandayev 84.Major I. Bogdanov 85.Senior Lieutenant N. Sokolov
48:56:00 86.Senior Lieutenant V. Mishenko 87.Senior Lieutenant I. Sokolov
48:57:00 88.Senior Lieutenant D. Chepusov 89.Senior Lieutenant V. Rochikashvili
48:58:00 90.Senior Lieutenant V. Kuan 91.v Senior Lieutenant V. Sedashev
48:59:00 92.Senior Lieutenant V. Markov 93.Captain V. Lazarev 94.Lieutenant V. Kamenschikov
49:00:00 95.Senior Lieutenant K. Rybakov 96.Captain V. Grishenchuk
49:01:00 97.Captain I. Pronin 98.Senior Lieutenant V. Timoshin 99.Senior Lieutenant V. Tsarenko
49:02:00 100.Senior Lieutenant B. Pushkaryov 101.Senior Lieutenant S. Dorokhov
49:03:00 102.Captain P. Potapov 103.Captain I. Kriklivets 104.Lieutenant B. Korshunov
49:04:00 105.Captain A. Alikin 106.Lieutenant Colonel I. Gorbunov
49:05:00 107.Lieutenant A. Galin 108.Captain V. Belov 109.Lieutenant N .Gerasimchuk
49:07:00 1144 American pilots died in the skies of Korea
49:09:00 306 were wounded
49:11:00 214 were captured
49:12:00 40 went missing
49:16:00 Created by Anton Drabkin and Vladimir Krupkin, Directed by Pavel Tupik
49:18:00 Director of Photography – Sergey Klepitsa, Music by Boris Kukoba
49:20:00 Hosted by Anatoliy Bogush and Yevgeniy Sinchukov
49:24:00 Produced by Valeriy Babitch, Vlad Ryashin, Sergey Titinkov and Konstantin Ernst